Bata'via, properly the name of the island occupied by the ancient Batavi, became at a later date the Latin name for Holland and the whole kingdom of the Netherlands. The name Batavian Republic was borne by the Netherlands from 1795 till 1806.
Batavia, the capital of the Dutch East Indian possessions, stands on the NW. coast of Java, near the mouth of the Tjiliwong. That small and shallow river is connected with a network of canals which intersect the town; and the influence of a vertical sun on the canals made Batavia proverbial as the grave of Europeans. The temperature, though not extreme, is oppressive from its uniformity, the mean of winter being 78.1° F., and that of summer only 78.6°. Latterly, the climate has been improved by draining, and most of the merchants live in the healthier suburbs, farther inland. The old town now contains mainly shops, stores, offices, and the houses of natives and Chinese. During the day, however, it is a busy place; and in it are still the town-house, the exchange, the great poorhouse, a hospital, etc. The bay is spacious, but very shallow towards the shore. Batavia is accessible only to boats; and since 1880 the government has constructed a great harbour some distance to the eastward at Tanjong Priong, connected with the capital by road, rail, and canal. To seaward the bay is protected by a range of islands and sandbanks. Its markets present at once all the productions of Asia and all the manufactures of Europe. The exports include coffee, rice, indigo, hides, arrack, sugar, tin, pepper, teak, tea, and tamarinds; the imports, cottons, woollens, silks, machinery, iron goods, and wine. In 1811, while Holland was under France, Batavia was taken by the English, but was restored to its former owners in 1816. The Dutch government has laid a telegraphic cable of 600 miles from Batavia to Singapore. Population, 120,000.