Bechuanaland (Betchooah'naland), a tract of South Africa, inhabited by the Bechuanas, extending from the Zambesi to the Transvaal border. The Bechuanas, who speak a Bantu language, also occupy a considerable portion of the Transvaal. British protection extends over Bechuanaland as far north as 22o S. lat. since 1884. South of the river Molopo a territory was proclaimed a crown colony in 1885; its area is 51,000 sq. m., and its population is about 70,000, of whom some 10,000 only are whites. The protectorate of Bechuanaland outside the crown colony is in extent about 3S0,000 sq. m. - more than thrice as large as the Transvaal or the United Kingdom - with a population of some 130,000. (For Rhodesia and the British area farther north, see Rhodesia, Zam-besia, Matabeleland, Mashonaland.) Bechuanaland is a portion of an elevated plateau 4000 to 5000 feet above sea-level, and though so near the tropics, is suitable for the British race. In winter there are sharp frosts, and snow falls in some years. The rains fall in summer, and then only the rivers are full. It is an excellent country for cattle; sheep thrive in some parts, and there are extensive tracts available for corn-lands. There are extensive forests to the northeast, and to the west the Kalahari Desert, which only requires wells dug to make it habitable. The enormous quantities of buck which roam over the land attest the productiveness of the soil. Gold has been found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds were discovered at Vryburg in 1887. The province of Stellaland is principally inhabited by Boers, and the rest of the country by Bechuanas, speaking a Bantu language. Their ancestors are said to have come from the north. They have since 1832 been at enmity with the Matabele, and in later years the Transvaal Boers endeavoured to occupy their country. During the native risings in 1878, the Bechuanas invaded Griqualand West, and were in turn subdued by British volunteers as far as the Molopo. When the British government withdrew from Bechuanaland in 1880, the natives, being helpless, were left to the mercy of the Boers of the Transvaal, whose harsh treatment in 1882 and 1883 led to the Bechuanaland expedition in 1884. The administration of the protectorate was left to three chiefs (Khama, Sebele, Bathoen) under British protection, represented by a resident commissioner under the High Commissioner for South Africa. The colony of Bechuanaland was incorporated with Cape Colony in 1895.