Belgium (Fr. Belgique), one of the smaller European states, consists of the southern portion of the former kingdom of the Netherlands (as created by the Congress of Vienna), lying between France and Holland, the North Sea and Rhenish Prussia. Its greatest length from northwest to south-east is 173 miles; and its greatest breadth from north to south, 105 miles. The area is 11,373 sq. m., not a third of that of Ireland. Pop. (1880) 5,520,009; (1901) 6,693,548. There are nine provinces - Antwerp, West Flanders, East Flanders, Hainault, Liege, Brabant, Limburg, Luxemburg, and Namur, of which Luxemburg is the largest and Limburg the smallest. Brussels, the capital, is, with its suburbs, the largest town (pop. 565,000); Antwerp is half its size; Liege and Ghent have more than 150,000 inhabitants; and there are twenty other towns with over 20,000. The population of Belgium is of partly Germanic, partly Celtic origin. The Flemings (of Teutonic stock) and Walloons (Celtic in origin) speak each their own dialects of Dutch and French; there are also numbers of Germans, Dutch, and French. East and West Flanders, Antwerp, and Limburg are almost wholly Flemish; and Brabant mainly so. The line between the Flemish and Walloon districts is sharply defined, the Flemish part being the richest and most cultivated. The French language has gained the ascendency in educated society and in the offices of government; but the Flemish dialect prevails numerically in the proportion of nine to eight. Belgium is next to England the most densely peopled country in Europe, the population being 589 to the sq. IB., as compared with 558 in England, without Wales (150 in Scotland, 136 in Ireland). In Brabant the density is close on 1000 per sq. m.