Belgrade' (Serb. Bielgorod, ' white town'), the capital of Servia, lies opposite Semlin, at the confluence of the Save and Danube, 215 miles SSE. of Pesth, and 234 miles NNW. of Vranja, by rail. The walls have disappeared since 1862; the last and finest of the five gates was demolished in 1868; and the citadel is hardly up to the requirements of modern warfare. Year by year the town is losing its old Turkish aspect, becoming more modern, more European. The royal palace, the residence of the metropolitan, the national theatre (1871), and the public offices are the principal buildings. Opposite the theatre is a bronze monument (1882) to the murdered Prince Michael III. Belgrade has but trifling manufactures of arms, cutlery, saddlery, silk goods, carpets, etc. It is, however, the entrepot of the trade between Turkey and Austria. Pop. (1872) 26,674; (1900) 69,100. Belgrade is the Singidunum of Ptolemy. Its position has made it the chief point of communication between Constantinople and Vienna, and the key to Hungary on the south-east. The Greeks held it until 1073, after which it passed through the hands of Hungarians, Greeks again, Bulgarians, Bosnians, and Servians, who sold it in 1426 to the Emperor Sigismund. In 1440 it was unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks; and when stormed (1456), was retaken from the Turks by the heroism of Hunyadi and Capistrano. Of seven more sieges between 1522 and 1789 the chief was in 1717, when the citadel surrendered to Prince Eugene, after he had defeated 200,000 Turks, with a loss to them of 20,000 men. In 1862, after a wanton bombardment from the citadel, it was made the capital of Servia, though the citadel remained with the Turks till 1867.