Berkhamstead, a market-town of Hertfordshire, on the Bulburn, 28 miles NW. of London. Straw-plaiting is carried on, and manufactures of wooden articles and chemicals. Cowper was a native. Pop. of parish, 6034.
Berlen'gas, a group of rocky islands in the Atlantic Ocean, off the west coast of the Portuguese province of Estremadm-a.
Berlin, the name of forty different towns, Villages, hamlets, and townships in the United States. The largest is a city of Coos county, New Hampshire, on the Androscoggin River, 15 miles from Mount Washington. Pop. 10,000.
Ber'mondsey, a south-east suburb of London, on the south bank of the Thames, and (since 1899) one of the metropolitan boroughs. Pop. 130,760.
Bernard, Great St. See St Bernard.
Bernburg, a town in the German duchy of Anhalt, till 1863 capital of Anhalt-Bernburg, on the Saale, 23 miles S. of Magdeburg. It manufactures machinery, sugar, spirits, porcelain, etc. Pop. (1871) 15,709; (1900) 34,500.
Berne. See Bern.
Ber'nera, (1) a Ross-shire island, 23 miles W. of Stomoway, on the coast of Lewis. It measures 53/8 by 3 1/4 miles, and attains 223 feet. Pop. 585. - (2) An Inverness-shire island, 1 mile N. of North Uist, measuring 5 1/2 by 2 miles. Pop. 521.
Ber'neray, an Inverness-shire island, 14 miles SSW. of Barra. Pop. 17.
Berni'na, a mountain of the RhAetian Alps, 13,290 feet high, in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Its summit was first attained in 1850. The Ber-nina Pass (7642 feet), with a carriage-road (1864), leads from Pontresina to Poschiavo.
Berwick, North. See North Berwick.
Besancon (Be-zongsong), a fortified French city, the capital now of the dep. of Doubs, and formerly of Franche-Comte, on the river Doubs, 57 miles E. of Dijon. It was the ancient Vesontio or Besontium; in 58 b.c. Caesar expelled the Sequani hence, and in the neighbourhood gained a victory over Ariovistus. It finally came into the possession of France in 1674. Several streets still bear old Roman names; and in the neighbourhood are ruins of a triumphal arch, an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and a large theatre. Among later structures are the 12th-century cathedral, the Palais de Justice (1749), and the half-Gothic, half-Renaissance palace (1534) of Cardinal Gran-vella. Besancon makes a large percentage of the watches made in France, and 15,000 of its inhabitants are engaged in this industry, introduced from Switzerland about 1818. Other manufactures are porcelain, carpets, iron-wire, Seltzerwater, and beer. Abel Remusat and Victor Hugo were natives. Pop. 51,000.