Bologna (Bolon'ya), one of the most ancient cities of Italy, beautifully situated on a fertile plain at the foot of the lower slopes of the Apennines, 82 m. N. of Florence, and 135 SE. of Milan by rail. An irregular hexagon, it is enclosed by a high brick wall, 5 to 6 miles in extent, with twelve gates, and is intersected by the canal of Reno. It has many fine palaces of the nobility; over 70 churches, including the cathedral and San Domenico, with the tomb of St Dominic, richly ornamented by Michael Angelo; and two remarkable leaning towers (c. 1100) - the Asinella, with a height of 274 feet, and a lean of 3 1/3 feet, and the Garisenda, with a height of 137 feet, and a lean of 8 1/6 feet. The university of Bologna, the oldest in Europe, celebrated its eighth centenary in 1888. Medicine has long superseded law as the principal study, and the discovery of Galvanism by one of its professors has shed a lustre on the university, which was the earliest school for the practice of dissection of the human body. For centuries learned female professors have prelected within its walls. The number of students, stated at 10,000 in 1262, now is only about 1400. Bologna also possesses an academy of music (1805), at which Rossini studied. The university library contains 160,000 vols, and 6000 MSS., and there is besides a city library of 120,000 vols. The Accademia delle Belle Arti is particularly rich in the works of those native artists who founded the Bolognese school of painting. Bologna has given eight popes and more than 200 cardinals to the Church. There are some manufactures, including silk goods, velvet, crape, wax candles, musical instruments, chemical products, paper, cards, and ' polony' sausages. Pop. (1872) 115,957; (1901) 152,000. The Etruscan Felsina, and afterwards as Bononia the chief town of the Boii, Bologna in 180 b.c. was made a Roman colony. After the fall of the Roman empire, it passed into the hands of the Longo-bards and Franks; by Charlemagne was made a free city, but in 1506 came under the papal supremacy.