Bolton, or Bolton-Le-Moors, an important manufacturing town and parliamentary, municipal, and county borough in South Lancashire, on the Croal, 11 miles NW. of Manchester. It was celebrated as far back as the time of Henry VIII. for its cotton and its woollen manufactures, introduced by Flemish clothiers in the 14th century. Emigrants from France and the Rhenish Palatinate subsequently introduced new branches of manufacture; and the improvements in cotton-spinning of the middle of the 18th century rapidly increased the trade of the town. Though Arkwright was at one time a resident, and Crompton lived all his life in Bolton parish, the opposition of the working-classes long retarded the adoption, in the town, of their inventions - the spinning-frame and the mule. Bolton, containing more than 100 cotton-mills, with about 4 million of spindles, is now one of the principal seats of the cotton manufacture in Lancashire. Muslins, fine calicoes, quiltings, counterpanes, dimities, etc, are manufactured. There are also extensive foundries and ironworks, bleaching-mills, chemical works, paper-mills, and dyeworks, with many neighbouring coal-mines. Bolton has public libraries and a museum, a public park and recreation grounds, a town-hall (1873), which cost £170,250, market-hall, fish-market, exchange, mechanics' institute, etc, and a water-supply from Entwisle Moor, 5 miles away. Bolton was the birthplace of the daily evening press. During the Civil War the Parliament garrisoned Bolton; in 1644 it was stormed by the Earl of Derby, who was beheaded here in 1651 on a spot now marked by his statue. Since 1832 it has returned two members. Pop. (1871) 92,655; (1881) 105,973; (1891) 115,002; (1901) 168,215.