Bombay, the western province of India. Including Sind and Aden (q.v.), it comprises 26 British districts and 19 native or feudatory states, and contains 194,189 sq. m., of which 69,045 are in native states. The Nerbudda River divides the 'presidency' into two portions: in the north is Guzerat, chiefly consisting of alluvial plains, with the Cutch and Kathiawar peninsulas; to the south is the Mahratta country, which includes parts of the Deccan, Carnatic, and Konkan or coast-districts. The small territories of the Portuguese - Goa, Daman, and Din - have an area of 1062 sq. m. The coast-line is irregular, broken by the gulfs of Cambay and Cutch, with several fine natural harbours, Bombay and Karachi (Kurrachee) being the most important; in the north are the Khirtar, in the south-east are the western Aravalli mountains; the Sahyadris or Western Ghats run almost parallel with the coast; the Satpura range runs east, and forms the watershed between the Tapti and Nerbudda. Sind is fertilised throughout by the Indus; the Subarmati and Mahi flow through North Guzerat; the Nerbudda pursues a western course into the Gulf of Cambay. The Tapti flows through Khan-desh, entering the sea above Surat. The Runn of Cutch (q.v.), in the west of Guzerat, covers about 8000 sq. m., and is the great source of salt-supply. There are few minerals, and no coal; iron is mined at Teagar in Dharvar, and there is gold amongst the quartz. Good building-stone is abundant, with limestone and slate. In the dry sandy districts of Sind, the thermometer has reached 130° in the shade; the mean temperature in Lower Sind, during the hottest months, is 98° in the shade. The coast-districts are hot and moist, with a heavy rainfall during the monsoon. The tableland of the Deccan has an agreeable climate, except during the hot months.
Of late years, manufacturing industries have been extremely active in Bombay, which commands the richest cotton-fields in India. The stoppage of the American cotton-supply during the civil war gave a grand impulse to the trade of Bombay, where the first mill had been started in 1854, the exports of cotton during the five years 1861-66 averaging in value £21,582,847 a year. The wealth poured into Bombay at this period led to a vast extension of the trade, which partly continued after the period of inflation had passed. Not only does Bombay now compete with Manchester in the Indian market; it exports its own manufactures. After cotton, the other great staples are opium, wheat, and seeds. The trade in opium is worth nearly five millions sterling annually, two millions being the clear revenue derived by government from a pass duty of 550 rupees a chest. Although of recent origin, the wheat trade has assumed large proportions. Other principal exports are sugar, tea, raw wool, woollen shawls, fibres, and drugs; while among the imports are machinery, metals, oils, coal, and liquors. There is a considerable trade in Arab horses. Silk-weaving is carried on at Ahmedabad, Surat, Nasik, Yeola, and Poona; carpets are made at Ahmednagar; cutlery, armour, and gold and silver work in Cutch. Pop. (1891) of native states, 8,059,298; of British territory, 18,901,123 - reduced by 1901 by famine and plague to 6,908,64S and 18,559,561 respectively.
Bombay City occupies the entire breadth of the SE. end of Bombay Island or Peninsula, bordering at once on the harbour inside, and on Back Bay outside. The island, now permanently connected by causeways and breakwaters with Salsette Island and the mainland, is over 11 miles long by from 3 to 4 broad. The island-studded harbour is one of the finest in the world; the space available for shipping being about 14 miles in length by 5 broad. Bombay is the most European in appearance of all the cities in India. In the business part there are several streets continuously lined with splendid buildings; while the bazaars, which extend from the fort towards Mazagaon, are traversed by fairly wide streets, extensive lines of tramways passing through even the most crowded parts. Many of the private houses of European residents are built on the suburb of Malabar Hill, the ridge running into the sea forming the west of Back Bay; and at Breach Candy looking seaward. On the esplanade, facing Back Bay, are the secretariat, the university, senate-hall, high court, offices of public works, sailors' home, and statue of the Queen. In the neighbourhood of the fort are the town-hall, the mint, cathedral, and customhouse. The terminus of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, opened in 1876, cost upwards of £300,000. The harbour is defended by batteries and ironclads. It has an extensive system of quays, wharves, and docks, extended in 1904-11 at a cost of 35,000,000 rupees. Mazagaon Bay, the centre of shipping activity, is at the head of the harbour. The city water-supply, equal to 100,000,000 gallons a day, has since 1892 been drawn from the Tansa valley, 65 miles N. Always favourably situated for foreign trade, Bombay has profited largely by being the first important port reached by vessels from Europe, and by being the terminus of the mail line to India by Suez and Aden, so that it stands next to Calcutta in amount of trade. The chief articles of export are cotton, wheat, shawls, opium, coffee, pepper, ivory, and gums; the chief imports, piece-goods, thread, yarn, metals, wine, beer, tea, and silk. The chief industries of the city are dyeing, tanning, and working in metal. The imports of the province of Bobbay in the period 1885-1903 varied in annual value from £20,000,000 to £30,000,000; the exports from £23,000,000 to £31,000,000. With 60 large steam-nulls, Bombay in one aspect resembles a city in Lancashire. Pop. (1881) 773,196; (1891) 821,764; (1901, after famine and plague) 776,000. In 1509, about a year before the capture of Goa, the Portuguese visited the island; and by 1532 they had made it their own. In 1661 they ceded it to Charles II. of England, as part of Catharine of Braganza's dowry, and in 1668 he granted it for an annual payment of £10 to the East India Company, which in 1685 transferred what was then its principal presidency to Bombay from Surat. Bombay was the birthplace of Dean Farrar, Sir Monier Williams, and Rudyard Kipling. See Sir W. Hunter's Bombay (1892).