Boston, a parliamentary and municipal borough and seaport in Lincolnshire, on the Witham, 30 miles SE. of Lincoln and 107 miles NE. of London by rail. Its name is a contraction of 'Botolph's town,' and it is supposed to occupy the site of the Benedictine abbey founded on the Witham by St Botolph in 654, and destroyed in 870 by the Danes. Under the Normans, Boston became a place of importance, in 1204 paying the largest dues (780) of any English port but London (836). In Edward III.'s reign many foreign traders settled, and the merchants of the Han-seatic League established a guild in Boston. After their departure, the town declined, and the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII. further injured it; but his grant of a charter of incorporation, and Mary's subsequent grant of extensive lands, partly compensated for this. The parish church measures 283 by 99 feet, and is one of the largest without transepts in England. The Perpendicular tower (' Boston Stump') is 263 feet high, and terminates in an octagonal lantern, doubtless intended for a lighthouse by land and by sea. The clearing of the river of silt, the formation of a new channel in 1881, and the opening of a new dock in 1884, have greatly promoted the trade of Boston, for ships of 2000 tons can now reach the heart of the town. The chief exports are coal, machinery, corn, and wool; and the imports consist of timber, maize, cotton-seed, and general merchandise. Boston is a great market for cattle and sheep, and has manufactures of canvas, sail-cloth, ropes, sacking, beer, iron, brass, leather, bricks, whiting, and hats, with some shipbuilding. Fox the martyrologist, Conington, Jean Ingelow, J. Westland Marston, and H. Ingram (founder of the Illustrated London News) were natives. Since 1885 Boston returns oidy one member to parliament. Pop. (1851) 14,733; (1901) 15,667 (parliamentary borough, 20,456).

Boston

Boston, capital of Massachusetts, and fifth in size of the cities of the United States, is situated on an inlet of Massachusetts Bay, called Boston Harbour, at the mouths of the Charles and Mystic rivers, 234 miles NE. of New York by rail. It is connected with Cambridge, on the other side of the Charles, by several bridges. Boston possesses an excellent harbour, protected by several forts, and covering 75 sq. m., with a minimum depth of 23 feet at low tide; it has four fine lighthouses, and is dotted with more than fifty islands. Eight lines of railway converge here. Boston is reputed to be the wealthiest city of America in proportion to its population. The chief imports are sugar, wool, hides (for its large boot and shoe manufactories), chemicals, flax, and cotton goods; the principal exports, meat and dairy products, cattle, bread-stuffs, cotton, and tobacco. Its manufactures are very varied; and its wool market comes next after that of London in importance. The Charles-town government navy yard is within the present limits of Boston, and the city, besides being the seat of many varied local manufactories, is the headquarters of heavy railroad, mining, and insurance interests. Boston is exposed to east winds, and pulmonary complaints are very prevalent; but otherwise its climate is healthy. It is one of the best built cities in the United States, prominent among its specimens of elaborate architecture being Trinity Church and the R. C. cathedral, the former erected at a cost of $750,000. The older buildings include the State-house (1795), with a conspicuous gilded dome, the Old State-house (1712), Christ Church (1723), Faneuil Hall (1743), afterwards termed 'The Cradle of Liberty,' and King's Chapel (1754). Among later public buildings and institutions may be noted Tremont Temple, the headquarters of New England Baptists, containing an audience-hall; the Free Public Library; the Post-office and Sub-treasury building, of granite, erected at a cost of about $6,000,000; the Lowell Institute, for the support of free public lectures; besides hospitals, homes, asylums, orphanages, dispensaries, etc. Among the higher institutions of learning are the Boston College (Catholic); the Boston University(Metho-dist); schools of technology and industrial science; two conservatories of music, schools of law and divinity; and the Massachusetts Medical College, connected with Harvard University, which, though located in Cambridge, is virtually a Boston institution. The ' Hub of the Universe' has long been noted for the interest taken by its citizens in literature, science, and art. It has been the birthplace of many famous men, including Franklin, J. S. Copley the painter, and his son Lord Lyndhurst, Chancellor of England, E. A. Poe, Emerson, Ticknor, Sumner and Park-man, as Cambridge was of Holmes and Lowell; while associated with it and Cambridge have been Hawthorne, Longfellow, Agassiz, Whittier, Motley, Bancroft, Prescott, Channing, T. Parker, Dana, Margaret Fuller, Thoreau, Aldrich, the Alcotts, the Jameses, and Howells. The city possesses some 250 literary, musical, and kindred associations. The number of newspapers and periodicals (including the Atlantic Monthly) here published is about 250. Originally founded in 1630 as Trimountain (from three hills on which it was built), upon the Shawmut peninsula, it was afterwards named Boston, after Boston in Lincolnshire, the native place of some of its colonists. The city now comprises What were formerly the separate towns of Rox-bury (annexed in 1867), Dorchester (1869), and Charlestown, West Roxbury, and Brighton (1873). The conspicuous part borne by the town in the early troubles with England brought about the 'Boston Massacre' of 1770, in which several people were killed by the fire of the soldiery; and after the destruction of the British-taxed tea in the harbour (1773), the port was practically closed, and the town occupied by a British force, which, in March 1776, was finally compelled to evacuate the place (see Bunker Hill). From 1830 to 1860 Boston was the headquarters of the movement for the suppression of slavery. The city has suffered from several destructive conflagrations, notably that of 1872. Pop. (1800) 24,937; (1840)93,383; (1860)177,840; (1880)362,839; (1890) 448,447; (1900) 560,892. See Winsor's History of Boston (4 vols. 1880-82).