Bradford, an important manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on a tributary of the Aire, at the meeting of three vales, 9 miles W. of Leeds, 34 SW. of York, and 191 NNW. of London by rail. Bradford in 1832 was created a parliamentary borough, in 1847 a municipality, in 1888 a county, and in 1897 a city. Municipal and parliamentary boroughs were made conterminous in 1S85; in 1899 the municipal (county and city) was extended to include Idle. For parliamentary purposes it falls into 3 districts, each returning one member. Bradford is the chief seat in England of the spinning and weaving of worsted yarn, and the great mart for the long wools used in worsted fabrics. It has developed of late worsted coating, velvet, and plush industries. The first mill was built in 1798; there are now more than 300. Coal and iron mines occur near Bradford, and the ironworks at Bowling and Lowmoor are very large and important; the making of machinery is a considerable industry; and there are neighbouring stone quarries. The parish church of St Peter is a fine Perpendicular building, with a tower of later date, and a number of interesting monuments. Bradford has also a town-hall (1873) of medieval design, which cost over 100,000, with campanile and carillon; mechanics' institute (1870); St George's Hall (1853); exchange (1867); extensive wholesale and retail markets, which have cost 150,000; grammar-school; technical college (1882); free library (1872); post-office, a fine building in the Italian style (1887); etc. Of its seven parks the older are Peel Park (56 acres), Lister or Man-ningham Park (56 acres), Horton Park (39 acres), Bowling Park (53 acres), and Bradford Moor Park (15 acres). In the civil wars, the people of Bradford took the parliament side, and twice defeated the royalists, but were afterwards themselves defeated by the Earl of Newcastle. The worsted trade, introduced to Bradford at the end of the 17th century, made rapid progress after the invention of the steam-engine. In a riot at Bradford against the introduction of worsted power-looms in 1826, two of the rioters were shot dead by the defenders of the mill which contained the obnoxious machinery, and many more were wounded. In 1825 a strike for increased wages, in which 20,000 persons were concerned, lasted six months. Its trade suffered severely owing to the McKinley tariff in the United States. This town is the seat of the first English temperance society (1830). There are statues of Sir Robert Peel, Richard Oastler, Sir Titus Salt, S. C. Lister, and W. E. Forster. Pop. (1851) 103,778; (1881) 194,495; (1891) 216,361; (1901) of parl, borough, 216,375, and of mun. and county borough, 279,767. See James's History of Bradford (2 vols. 1841-66).

Bradford

Bradford, a Pennsylvanian town, 65 miles S.

of Buffalo, with oil-wells and sawmills. Pop. 15,514.