Brecknockshire, or Brecon, an inland county of South Wales. The maximum length is 39 miles; its breadth ranges between 11 1/2 and 30 miles; and its area is 719 sq. m., of which only 43 per cent. is cultivated. Brecknockshire is one of the most mountainous counties in South Wales, and has deep, beautiful, and fertile valleys. Two principal mountain-chains, the highest in South Wales, culminating in the Brecon Beacons at 2910 feet, intersect the county in the north and south, and occupy, with their offshoots, a great part of the surface. The chief rivers are the Wye and Usk; and Llangorse Lake covers nearly 1800 acres. The agriculture, though still defective, especially in the higher districts, has been greatly improved by the Brecknockshire Agricultural Society, instituted in 1775. The mineral produce is small, consisting of iron, especially along the south border; coal and limestone are also found in the south and west. The Brecon Canal connects the county with the Bristol Channel. There are several small factories of woollens and worsted hosiery; also several important ironworks, but the ore is chiefly obtained from adjoining counties. Brecknockshire returns one member to parliament. Pop. (1801) 32,325; (1871) 61,627; (1901) 54,213. The chief towns are Brecon (the county town), Builth, Crickhowell, Hay, and Llanelly. There are many remains of British and Roman camps, Roman roads, cairns, cromlechs, mounds, and castles, throughout the county. The Normans wrested the county from the Welsh princes in 1092. Llewelyn, the last British prince of Wales, was killed at Llanafanfechan, near Builth, in 1282. Welsh is still the language of the middle-class and the peasantry. See Jones's History of Brecknockshire (2 vols. 1805-9).