Brest, a strongly fortified city in the dep. of Finistdre, one of the chief naval stations of France, is situated 389 miles by rail W. of Paris, on the north side of the Bay or Road of Brest. One of the finest harbours in Europe, the roadstead is formed by the promontory of Finistere on the north and Kelerun on the south, and is broken up into various bays formed by the mouths of streams as they enter the bay. The only entrance to the bay is by a narrow channel called Le Goulet, which is scarcely a mile wide, and is strongly defended by batteries; the difficulty and danger of access to hostile ships being increased by rocks in the middle of the channel. The roadstead from this entrance to the mouth of the Elon is about 6 miles in length. Under Napoleon III. £600,000 was expended on harbour and fortification works, and a further sum of £1,500,000 between 1883 and 1894. The small river Penfeld flows through the town; on its left bank is the town proper, on its right the suburb of Recouvrance, connected by a splendid iron swing-bridge (1861), 65 feet high, and 34? long. The manufactures include leather, waxcloth, paper, and rope; the exports are chiefly beer, grain, brandy, and fish. Brest has extensive shipbuilding yards, rope-walks, storehouses, quays, arsenals, and dry-docks; its industry is chiefly confined to the equipment of the navy in its various branches. The splendid position of Brest made it an object of contention to French, English, and Spaniards. In 1631 Cardinal Richelieu resolved to make it a naval station, and commenced the fortifications, which were completed by Vauban, but have since been greatly extended. In 1694 the English under Lord Berkeley were repulsed here with great loss; in 1794 the French fleet was defeated off Brest by the English fleet under Howe. Pop. (1872) 66,272; (1891) 75,854; (1901) 84,285.