Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, a seaport and chief seat of trade in the colony, is situated about 500 miles N. of Sydney, and 25 miles from the mouth of the Brisbane River, which falls into Moreton Bay. Pop. (1876) 26,911; (1881) 31,109; (1891) 48,738; (1901, within a five-mile radius) 119,428. North and South Brisbane are connected by an iron bridge, 1080 feet long, destroyed in 1893 and rebuilt in 1897. Notable buildings are the Parliament Houses, Government House, museum, supreme court, post-office, custom-house, Anglican and Catholic cathedrals, and some of the banks. There are several parks and botanic gardens. The export trade, which is large, includes gold, wool, cotton, sugar, tallow, and hides; and the imports, most of the articles in use among a thriving community. Regular steam communication is kept up with the other Australian ports, as well as with London (11,295 miles). The channel of the river has been deepened, and admits of large vessels coming up to Brisbane. Brisbane is the terminus of several local railways, and since 1888 it has had through railway connection with Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide - the last link being the bridge over the Hawkesbury River. Brisbane was settled as a penal station in 1825 by Sir T. Brisbane, governor of New South Wales. In 1839 the convict settlement was broken up. The era of progress began in 1842, when the colony was opened to free settlers. At first an appanage of New South Wales, the Moreton Bay district was erected into an independent colony in 1859, when the city was incorporated. - The Brisbane River rises in the Burnett Range, and receives the Bremer and other rivers before its entrance into Moreton Bay, below the town of Brisbane. Its floods in February 1893 did tremendous damage to the city, South Brisbane being practically laid in ruins.