Buffalo, a city of New York state, capital of Erie county, is at the east end of Lake Erie, and at the head of Niagara River. It is 295 miles NW. of New York City in a direct line, but 423 by the Erie Railroad; the distance from Chicago is 539 miles. In population and wealth, Buffalo ranks third among the cities of New York. It has a capacious harbour, admitting vessels of 17 feet draught, and with an outer breakwater 4000 feet long, besides other breakwaters, piers, basins, and canals. The harbour is guarded by Fort Porter, which stands two miles out from the heart of the city; close by is the old fort, built in 1812, but now in ruins. The water front of the city extends 8 miles along the lake and river, while Buffalo Creek has been rendered navigable for over a mile. The commercial importance of Buffalo dates from the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825; but since 1862 the lake commerce has yielded to the competition of the railroads. The chief business is the receiving, transferring, and storing of grain, the annual amount of which (including flour) received by lake and railroad is from 70,000,000 to 90,000,000 bushels. The live-stock trade is scarcely second in importance; the iron and steel works rank next to those of Pittsburgh; and the shipments of Pennsylvania coal, which finds a depot here, have greatly increased of late years. The lumber trade is also large, but has been partly diverted to Tonawanda, 10 miles below Buffalo, where more room is afforded. The industrial works comprise four blast-furnaces, large rolling-mills, machine-shops, car-shops, iron shipyards, stove-foundries, tanneries, breweries, flour-mills, and manufactories of agricultural implements. Buffalo is connected with the Niagara Utilisation Company's works for electric lighting and motor power. The navigation of Lake Erie usually opens about the middle of April, the extreme dates being a month earlier and a month later. Buffalo has wide streets, well paved and lighted, and generally lined with trees. It has excellent sewerage, and extensive water-works supplied from Niagara River; and its healthfulness is attested by the low death-rate of 14 per 1000. There are five public squares, and the magnificent park consists of three sections, connected by boulevards, which encircle the city. The city and county hall is an imposing structure of Maine granite, in the form of a double Roman cross, with a tower 245 feet high, surmounted by four statues. The other prominent buildings are the U. S. custom-house and post-office, the public library, the state arsenal, the county penitentiary, and a state asylum for the insane (in North Buffalo). Of the two finest of its 100 churches, St Joseph's Cathedral (Roman Catholic) is a gray Gothic structure; and St Paul's (Episcopal) has been rebuilt since its burning in 1888. Founded in 1801, Buffalo was burned in 1813 by British and Indians. It was incorporated as a city in 1832, and had then a population of 15,000, which had increased in 1860 to 81,130; in 1880 to 155,137; in 1S90 to 255,664; in 1900 to 352,387.