Bulgaria, a principality in the Balkan Peninsula, between the Danube and the Balkans. It was created by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), and since 1885 Eastern Roumelia, lying to the S., has been practically incorporated with it. The area of Bulgaria is 24,500 sq. m.; that of Eastern Roumelia, 13,700; and their united population in 1903 was 3,310,715 - over three-fourths Bulgarians, 530,000 Turks, 90,000 Gypsies, 72,000 Roumanians. 70,000 Greeks, and 34,000 Jews. The north of Bulgaria is fertile plain and hilly country; the south is wooded and mountainous. A fine waterway as her northern boundary and an outlet to the Black Sea, a seaboard, a mild climate, a purely agricultural country capable of great development, free institutions and about the most liberal constitution in Europe, a peasantry possessing the solid qualities and persevering industry of northern races - with these elements for her economic development, her right to a national existence cannot be disputed. The physical aspects of Eastern Roumelia are very varied, the surface in the west being broken up by the offshoots of the Albanian ranges, and in the north and north-east by the Balkans and their spurs. The principal exports are cereals, and the imports live-stock; but there are important manufactures of woollens and attar of roses, and the production of wine and tobacco receives considerable attention. Sofia is the capital, the other principal towns being Varna, Shunila, Rustchuk, Widin, Razgrad, Sistova, Tirnova, and Plevna; Philippopolis is the chief town of Eastern Roumelia. The Bulgarians belonged originally to the Ural-Altaic stock, but have adopted a Slavonic dialect. First crossing the Danube in the 6th century a.d., by 1186 they had split up into three principalities, and from 1393 fell under the domination of the Turks. The Bulgarians now extend far beyond the boundaries of the two Bulgarian states, into Macedonia, Bessarabia, etc, their total number being estimated at seven millions. See Samuel-son, Bulgaria (1888); Dicey, The Peasant State (1894); Miller, The Balkans (1896).