Bury, a flourishing manufacturing town of South-east Lancashire, on a rising ground backed by hills on the north and east, between the Irwell and the Roche, 10 miles NNW. of Manchester. The woollen manufacture introduced by Flemings in the 14th century attained its zenith under Elizabeth, but had greatly declined by 1738, when Bury was merely 'a little market-town,' and it has long been all but eclipsed by the cotton industry. Besides spinning and weaving factories, there are important paper, print, bleach, and dye works, and some large foundries and engine manufactories. In the vicinity are excellent freestone quarries, and abundant coalmines. Some improvements in the cotton manufacture arose here - notably, the invention by John Kay of the fly-shuttle. Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) was born at Bury in a cottage near Chamber Hall, his father being a great calico manufacturer. In 1852 a bronze statue of him was erected in the market-square. Bury was made a parliamentary borough (returning one member) in 1832, a municipal borough in 1876 (the boundary was extended in 1885), and a county borough in 1888. Pop. (1851) 31,262; (1891) 57,212; (1901) 58,030.