Cadiz (Kay'diz; Span. pron. Kah'deeth), a great Spanish port, capital of a province in Andalusia, is situated on the Atlantic at the extremity of a narrow tongue of land projecting 5 miles NW. from the Isle of Leon, 95 miles SSW. of Seville by rail. A small channel, with a drawbridge and a railway bridge, separates the island from the mainland; at its northern outlet stands the arsenal of La Carraca, with large docks, 4 miles ESE. of the city. The town, which is walled and defended from the sea both by a series of forts and by low shelving rocks, is about 2 miles in circuit, and presents a remarkably bright appearance, with its shining granite ramparts, and its whitewashed houses crowned with terraces and overhanging turrets. It has few public buildings of note: its two cathedrals being indifferent specimens of architecture, though possessing some excellent Murillos. Cadiz reached its highest prosperity after the discovery of America, when it became the depot of all the commerce with the New World, but declined greatly as a commercial city after the emancipation of the Spanish colonies in South America. The exports consist of salt, cork, lead, wine, tunny-tish, olive-oil, and fruits. The manufactures are glass, woollen cloth, leather, soap, hats, gloves, fans, etc. Pop. (1887) 63,277; (1897) 70,180. Built by the Phoenicians, under the name of Gaddir ('fortress'), about 1100 B.C., Cadiz afterwards passed to the Carthaginians; was captured by the Romans, who named it Gades, and under them soon became a city of vast wealth and importance. In 1587 Drake destroyed the Spanish fleet in the bay; nine years later, Cadiz was pillaged and burned by Essex.