Caen (Kong), chief town of the French dep. of Calvados, and the former capital of Lower Normandy, is situated on the left bank of the navigable Orne, here joined by the Odon, 9 miles from its mouth, 149 W. by N. of Paris, and 83 ESE. of Cherbourg. Among its fifteen churches are St Etienne and La Sainte Trinite, both founded in 1066 by William the Conqueror and his queen Matilda, and containing their graves, which the Huguenots violated in 1562; and St Pierre (1303-1521), with an exquisite spire 242 feet high. The Conqueror's castle, finished by Henry I. of England, was dismantled in 1793, and now serves as a barrack. The faculty or university (1809) is successor to one founded by our Henry VI. in 1436; and in the Hotel de Ville is a library of 80,000 volumes and a fine collection of paintings. The chief manufacture is lace. Trade is facilitated by a maritime canal connecting the port with the sea. In 1346, and again in 1417, Caen was taken by the English, who held it till 1450. Malherbe, Marot, Huet, and Auber were natives (a marble statue of the last was unveiled in 1883); Charlotte Corday lived here; and Beau Brummell died in the lunatic asylum. Pop. (1872) 39,415; (1901) 41,530.