Calcutta, the capital of Bengal and of British India, is situated on the left bank of the Htig (Hooghly), an arm of the Ganges, in 22° 34' N. lat., and 88° 24' E. long., about 80 miles from the sea by the river. It was founded In 16S6, by the removal hither from Hugli. of the factories of the East India Company. Calcutta is the Anglicised form of Kalikata, as this again is the Moslemised form (1596) of Kali-ghat, a famous shrine of the goddess Kali, which still exists to the south of the city. In 1707 Calcutta had acquired some importance as a town, and was made the seat of a presidency. In 175G, however, it was unexpectedly attacked by Suraj-ud-Daula (Surajah Dowlah), the Nawab of Bengal, and yielding after a two days' siege, was the scene of the tragedy of the 'Black Hole.' The city remained in the hands of the enemy until seven months afterwards, when Clive recaptured it. In 1772-90 Calcutta superseded Murshidabad as seat of the central government in India; in 1852 it was erected into a municipality. Pop. (1837) 229,700; (1891) 741,144; (1901) 1,026,987, of whom 62 per cent. are Hindus, 32.2 Mohammedans, and 4.4 Christians. The appearance of the city as it is approached by the river is very striking. On the left are the Botanical Gardens, destroyed by the cyclones of 1867 and 1870, but since replanted; and the Bishop's College, a handsome Gothic edifice, now used as an engineering college. On the right are the suburb of Garden Reach, the government dockyards and the arsenal, and the Maidan Esplanade, which has been termed the Hyde Park of India. Here, near the river, lies Fort William, the largest fortress in India, constructed (1757-73) at a cost of 2,000,000, and occupying, with the outworks, an area of 2 sq. m. Facing the Esplanade, among other fine buildings, is the Government House, the official residence of the Viceroy of India, a magnificent palace erected (1799-1804) by the Marquis of Wellesley. Beyond this, extending northwards along the river-bank, is the Strand, two miles in length, and 40 feet above low-water, with various ghats or landing-places. It is adorned by many fine buildings, including the custom-house, the new mint, and other government offices, and is lined by a splendid series of jetties for ocean steamers. Among other places of interest are the High Court, the Bengal Government Offices, St Paul's Cathedral, the Scotch church (St Andrew's), the Imperial Museum, the town-ball, Bank of Bengal, Jesuits' College, Medical College, university (1857), the domed post-office, and the Treasury. Calcutta has three theatres, several large European hotels, two fine clubs - the Bengal and United Service, four daily English newspapers, and a number of monuments throughout the city, the most noticeable being those to the Marquis of Wellesley, Sir James Outram, and Sir David Ochter-lony, the last a column 165 feet high. Of Calcutta's own sons the greatest is W. M. Thackeray. Although the European quarter of the town is distinguished for its fine public buildings and commodious dwelling-houses, the quarters occupied by the natives present a very different appearance, their houses being in most instances built of mud or bamboo and mats, and the streets narrow and unpaved. Calcutta has been said to be a city of palaces in front and of pig-styes behind. Great havoc was done in the native quarter by the cyclone of 1S64, which destroyed 40,700 native houses; and those of 1867 and 1870 were likewise very destructive. Considerable improvements have now been effected; new and wider streets have been opened through crowded quarters; brick houses are fast replacing the huts, and an extensive system of drainage has been carried out to the no small advantage of the inhabitants. The water-supply of Calcutta has been very much improved (1865-88), the large tanks interspersed throughout the city having been superseded by an excellent supply drawn from the Hugli, 15 miles above Calcutta. The result of this has been a marked improvement in the health of the city. Electricity and gas have taken the place of the oil-lamps which till far on in the 19th century lighted the streets at night. Tramways have been extensively introduced, and steam tramways run to some of the suburbs. A canal girds a part of the city beyond the Circular Road. In Howrah and other villages on the right bank of the river are warehouses, ironworks, timber-yards, large jute-mills, etc. Calcutta may be regarded as the great commercial capital of Asia; and its communications by rail and steamboat afford great facilities for its extensive commerce. Navigation on the Hugli has been greatly improved, and an extensive scheme of docks constructed at Kidderpur, at a cost of nearly 3 millions sterling. The river, adjacent to the city, varies in breadth from a quarter of a mile to nearly a mile. Ships of 5000 tons ascend to Calcutta in the usual course, the main difficulty to shipping being the James and Mary shoal, half-way down the river.