Caledonian Canal, a chain of natural lakes united by artificial canals, running straight across Scotland south-westerward from the North Sea to the Atlantic, through Glenmore, or the Great Glen of Albin, in Inverness-shire. The sea and fresh-water lochs in this line are the Moray Firth and Lochs Dochfour, Ness, Oich, Lochy, and Linnhe. Suggested by Watt in 1773, and carried out from Telford's plans in 1803-23, at a total cost up to 1849 of 1,311,270, the canal was designed to avoid the dangerous and tedious navigation of ships, especially coasting-vessels, round by the Pentland Firth; the distance between Kinnaird's Head and the Sound of Mull by this route being 500 miles, but by the canal only 250, with an average saving of 9 1/2 days for sailing-vessels. From the head of the Moray Firth to that of Loch Linnhe, its length is 60 1/2 miles, 37 1/2 miles being natural, and 23 miles artificial. Each cut is 120 feet broad at surface, 50 at bottom, and 17 deep. The highest part is Loch Oich (105 feet); and there are in all 28 locks. Ships of 500 to 600 tons can pass through. The annual expenditure exceeds as a rule the income, each ranging between 6000 and 11,000.