Calicut

Cal'icut, a seaport of Malabar, Madras presidency, 6 miles N. of Beypur terminus, and 506 SSE. of Bombay. It was the first spot in India visited overland by Covilham (1486) and round the Cape by Vasco da Gama (149S), being then the chief emporium on the coast. So populous and powerful was it, that it twice repulsed the Portuguese, slaying their commander in 1509, and expelling Albuquerque himself in 1510. In 1792, when it fell into the hands of the English, it was little better than a ruin; but since then it has made progress in trade and population, though the anchorage is an open roadstead. The cotton cloth at first exported hence was called 'calico.' Pop. (1881) 57,085; (1901) 75,510. See Logan's Malabar (Madras, 1887).

Callan

Callan, a market-town, on the Owenree, 13 miles SW. of Kilkenny. Pop. 1843.

Callander

Callander, a Perthshire village, a great tourist centre, on the Teith, 16 miles NW. of Stirling by rail. Pop. 1438.

Callao(Span. pron. Kal-yah'o), the port of Lima, Peru, 7 m. SW. of Lima, on a small bay, possesses a floating-dock, while fine harbour-works, embracing an area of 520 acres, with extensive pier and dock accommodation, were completed in 1875; and the spacious roadstead, sheltered by the island of San Lorenzo, is one of the safest in the world. The huge old Spanish fortress is used for custom-house offices. There are sugar-refineries, ironworks, and sawmills; and the exports are wool, sugar, specie, copper, cotton, bark, hides, guano, and cubic nitre. Pop. 48,000. The present Callao dates only from 1746, when the original city, a little to the south, was destroyed by an earthquake and an invasion of the sea. It was bombarded in 1880 during the Avar between Chili and Peru.

Callendar

Callendar, a mansion 3/4 mile ESE. of Falkirk, with memories of Queen Mary, Prince Charles Edward, etc. In the grounds is a well-preserved section of the northern Roman wall.

Callernish

Callernish, a district on the west coast of the island of Lewis, 16 miles from Stornoway, remarkable for its four stone circles.

Callington

Callington, a Cornish market-town, 11 miles S. of Launceston. Pop. of urban district, 1714.

Calmar

Calmar. See Kalmar.

Calne

Calne (Kaun), an old market-town of Wiltshire, 6 miles ESE. of Chippenham by a branch-line (1863). It has a town-hall (1882), a free grammar-school (1660), and a large bacon-curing industry. A municipal borough, Calne returned one member till 1885. Pop. 3455.

Caltabelotta

Caltabelotta (Arabic Kalaat-el-Ballut, ' castle of the cork-trees'), a town of Sicily, 10 miles NE. of Sciacca, with an ancient castle crowning a steep rock above a stream. Pop. 6178.

Caltagirone

Caltagirone (Kaltajeero'nay), a city of Sicily, on two hills (2013 feet), 38 miles SW. of Catania. Pop. 33,000.

Caltanisetta

Caltanisetta, a fortified town of Sicily, 83 miles SB. of Palermo by rail. It has a cathedral, mineral springs, and sulphur-works. Pop. 44,500.