Canossa

Canossa, a ruined castle of Italy, 12 miles SW. of Reggio. Here the Emperor Henry IV. in 1077 made submission to Pope Gregory VII.

Canso

Canso, Cape, the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia, at the entrance of Chedabucto Bay. Canso Strait, 17 miles long and 2 1/2 wide, separates Nova Scotia from Cape Breton.

Cantal

Cantal, an inland dep. of Southern France, formed out of the south portion of the old province of Auvergne. Area, 2090 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 234,382.

Cantire

Cantire. See Kintyre.

Cape Breton

Cape Breton (Brit'un), a rocky Canadian island of irregular form, at the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated by the Gut of Canso, one mile broad. Measuring 100 by 85 miles, it has an area of 3120 sq. m., with a pop. of 97,000. The coast is greatly indented, and an inlet, the Bras d'Or, entering the island on the east, forms a lake (50 by 20 miles) which renders most of the interior accessible by water, and which, now continued by a ship-canal (1/2 mile) to St Peter's Bay, on the south coast, bisects the island. The climate is moist, but milder than that of the adjoining continent; the principal exports are timber, fish, iron ore, and coal. Originally French, it was taken and retaken by the English in 1745-58; and in 1819 became part of the province of Nova Scotia. The towns are Sydney, Arichat, and Port Hood, the once strongly fortified Louisbourg having sunk to a village.

Cape Coast Castle

Cape Coast Castle, a British settlement in the Gold Coast Colony, Upper Guinea, 315 miles W. of Lagos. It lies in a chasm, and is defended by the great castle and by three small forts on the hills behind. Ceded by the Dutch in 1665, from 1672 it was possessed by several companies till 1843, when it was taken over by government. In 1875 it was superseded by Accra as capital of the Gold Coast. L. E. Landon died here in 1838. Pop. 11,500.

Cape Cod

Cape Cod, a narrow peninsula of Massachusetts, in form like the letter L, which, with a length of 65 miles, forms the south-east boundary of the great bay of that state. A canal across the neck has been proposed.

Cape Haytien

Cape Haytien, or Le Cap, a seaport on the north coast of Hayti, 90 miles N. of Port au Prince. Pop. 30,000.

Cape Horn

Cape Horn, etc. See Horn (Cape), etc.

Cape of Good Hope

Cape of Good Hope, popularly regarded as the most southerly promontory of Africa, though it is half a degree N. of Cape Agulhas. This celebrated promontory is in 34° 22' S. lat., and 18° 29' E. long., being the termination of Table Mountain (3582 feet). On the north it forms Table Bay; on the west it shuts in False Bay and Simon's Bay. 'The Cape' was actually reached and doubled by the Portuguese Diaz, driven out of his reckoning by tempests, in 1486 - six years before Columbus saw America. The cape Diaz had from his experiences on the voyage named ' Cape of all the Storms' John II. of Portugal renamed Cabo de Buena Esperanza (' Cape of Good Hope'). But it was only in 1497 that Vasco da Gama took advantage of the discovery, rounding the Cape on his adventurous voyage from Lisbon to Calicut.