Carmania, the old name of Kerman (q.v.).
Carmarthen (Welsh Caer Fyrddyn, the Mari-dunum of Ptolemy), the capital of Carmarthenshire, on the navigable Towy, 9 miles from Carmarthen Bay, and 39 NW. of Swansea. Steele is buried in the old parish church; a ruined castle of the Welsh princes was in 1787 incorporated in a new county jail; and Generals Picton and Nott, both natives, are commemorated by an obelisk and a bronze statue. Near the town are tin and iron works; and Carmarthen exports tin-plates, slates, domestic produce, etc. It unites with Llanelly in returning one member. Pop. (1851) 10,524; (1901) 10,025.
Carnac, a village in the French dep. of Mor-bihan, 20 miles SE. of Lorient. It is remarkable for the number and variety of the Celtic monuments and Gallo-Roman ruins, consisting of menhirs, dolmens, and tumuli, with which the neighbourhood is studded. The principal group of menhirs is situated on a sterile moor near the seashore, and consists of 1000 or more rude monoliths of granite, rising, many of them, to a height of 18 feet, though a large proportion do not exceed 3 feet. They are arranged in eleven roughly parallel rows, with two slight breaks, extend from east to west about 1 1/4 mile in length, and have at one end a curved row of 18 stones, the extremities of which touch the outer horizontal rows. See Mini's Excavations at Carnac (2 vols. 1877-81).
Carniola (Ger. Krain), a south-west crown-land of the Austrian empire, united thereto since, has an area of 3856 sq. m., and a pop. of 510,000, of whom 35,000 are Germans and 18,000 Croats, the rest being Slavs of the Slovenian branch. It is traversed in the north by a continuation of the Carinthian Alps, and in the south by the Julian Alps, the loftiest summit being the Terglou (9393 feet), between the two sources of the Save, which is the principal river. The chief minerals are iron, quicksilver, and brown coal; the quicksilver mines of Idria are, next to Almaden, the most important in Europe. Laibach is the capital.
Carnlough, an Antrim fishing-village, 6 miles SE. of Cushendall Station. Pop. 592.