Carmarthenshire, a maritime county of South Wales, washed on the south by Carmarthen Bay, a semicircular inlet of the Bristol Channel, and bounded on the other sides by Pembroke, Cardigan, Brecknock, and Glamorgan shires. The largest of all the Welsh counties, it has a maximum length and breadth of 45 1/2 and 26 miles, and an area of 947 sq. m., of which 70.8 per cent. is under cultivation. The county is mountainous in the north and east, Carmarthen Van or Beacon (2596 feet) being the highest summit. The coast is marshy; the chief river is the Towy, which has a course of 65 miles, five-sixths in Carmarthenshire, and yields plenty of salmon, trout, eels, and lamprey. On this river is the celebrated vale of the Towy, 30 miles long, with an average breadth of 2 miles. The mineral productions of the county are iron, coal, copper, lead, slates, lime, dark-blue marble. These, with tinned iron, grain, cattle, horses, sheep, and butter, are exported. The principal towns are Carmarthen, Llanelly, Llandilo-vawr, Llandovery, and New-castle-Emlyn. The chief manufactures are woollens and leather. Pop. (1801) 67,317; (1841) 106,326; (1901) 135,328, largely Welsh-speaking. Carmarthenshire returns two members. It was the birthplace of the 'Rebecca' Riots (1843-44) against turnpike-gates.