Castres (Kastr), a town in the French dep. of Tarn, on the river Agout, 46 miles (72 by rail) E. of Toulouse. It rose up around a Benedictine abbey (647), and in the 16th century became a Huguenot stronghold, but its fortifications were demolished in 1629. It has beautiful promenades, a quondam cathedral, and manufactures of fine wool dyed goods, leather, paper, soap, etc. Pop. 25,000.
Castri. See Delphi.
Castro Urdiales (Oordiah'les), on the N. coast of Spain, 30 m. ESE. of Santander. Pop. 12,250.
Catalonia (Span. Cataluna), an old principality of Spain, triangular in shape, occupying the north-east portion of the peninsula, and now divided into the provinces of Barcelona, Tarragona, Lerida, and Gerona. Total area, 12,500 sq. m.; pop. 2,000,000. Catalonia is the principal manufacturing province of the kingdom - is, in fact, 'the Lancashire of Spain.' The language, costume, and habits of the inhabitants, who regard with contempt and pity the Spaniards of the surrounding provinces, are quite distinct from those of the rest of Spain, whose people they greatly surpass in energy, industry, and intelligence. Even the educated classes speak the rough Catalan dialect, more nearly akin to Provencal than to Castilian. Catalonia became an integral portion of the Spanish monarchy in 1479, though never a very peaceable one.
Catania (Katah'nia; anc. Catana), a seaport of Sicily, near the foot of Etna, 59 miles by rail SSW. of Messina, and 54 NNW. of Syracuse. By eruptions and earthquakes, it has been several times almost entirely destroyed - especially in 1669 and 1693; but out of its ruins it has always risen with increased beauty, and it is now the finest city in Sicily. The harbour was choked by a stream of lava in 1693, and is still unsafe, in spite of a costly mole. Among the chief buildings are the Benedictine convent of San Nicola, secularised in 1866; the cathedral (1091); and the university (1445). Catania has manufactures of silk and linen goods, and of articles in amber, lava, wood, etc. Among the remains of ancient times are those of a theatre, a temple of Ceres, Roman baths, and an aqueduct. Pop. (commune) 150,000.