Chaco, El Gran. See Gran Chaco.


Chadda, another name for the Benue (q.v.).


Chadderton, a suburb of Oldham (q.v.).


Chaeronea, a town in ancient ;otia, near the . river Cephissus, memorable for the disastrous defeat of the Athenians by Philip of Macedon, 338 b.c. Plutarch was a native.


Chagny (Shan-yee'), a town in the French dep. of Saone-et-Loire, 32 miles S. of Dijon. Pop. 4589.


Chagos. See Diego Garcia.


Chagres (Tchah-gres), a town of the republic of Panama-, on the N. coast of the Isthmus of Panama, at the mouth of the Chagres River. The river Chagres rises about 10 miles NE. of Panama, makes an immense bend round to the NE., and enters the Caribbean Sea. Though towards its mouth it varies in depth from 16 to 30 feet, it is yet but little available for navigation. The proposed route of the Panama Canal was by the valley of the Chagres for part of its course.


Chalce'don, a city of ancient Bithynia, at the entrance of the Euxine, opposite to Byzantium.


Chalcis, the capital of the Greek island of Eubcea, on the Euripus, a strait here only 120 feet wide. It was successively Athenian, Macedonian, Roman, and Venetian, until its conquest by the Turks in 1470. Pop. 9877.


Chaleurs, Bay of, an inlet of the Gulf of St Lawrence, between Gaspe, a district of Quebec, and New Brunswick, having a length of 90 miles east and west, and a width of from 12 to 20.

Chalfont St Giles

Chalfont St Giles, a village of Buckinghamshire, 16 miles SE. of Aylesbury. Milton's cottage here (1665) was saved from demolition and purchased by the nation in 1887.


Chalgrove, a village 13 miles SE. of Oxford, the scene of a skirmish between Prince Rupert's cavalry and a parliamentary force under Hampden, who here received his death-wound, June 18,1643.


Chalons-sur-Marne (Shahlong-sur-Marn), the capital of the French dep. of Marne, on the right bank of the river Marne, 107 miles E. of Paris by rail. An old place, with timber houses and many spired churches, it has a 13th-century cathedral, a handsome hotel-de-ville(1772), and a fine public park, though the Germans in 1870 cut down its immemorial elms for fuel. It still does a considerable trade in champagne wine; but its manufacture of the worsted cloth known as 'shalloon' (Chaucer's chalons) is a thing of the past, and the population has dwindled from 60,000 in the 13th century to 21,500 in the 20th. Near Chalons (anc. Catalauni) the Romans and Goths in 451 a.d. defeated Attila and his Huns. In 1856 Napoleon III. formed the celebrated camp of Chalons, 16 1/2 miles NE. of the town.


Chalon-sur-Saone (Shdhlong-sur-Sone), a town in the French dep. of Saone-et-Loire, 84 1/2 miles by rail N. of Lyons. Lying on the right bank of the Saone, which here is joined by the Canal du Centre, uniting it with the Loire, Chalon has an extensive traffic with central France, as well as with the Mediterranean and Atlantic. The industries are copper and iron founding, machinery and shipbuilding, and the manufacture of glass, paper, and chemicals. Pop. 30,000.