Cheltenham, a fashionable watering-place of Gloucestershire, on the Chelt, a little affluent of the Severn, 44 miles NNE. of Bristol, 47 SSW. of Birmingham, and 121 WNW. of London (by road only 95). It lies in a picturesque and fertile valley, on the east and south-east half encircled by the Coteswolds. A saline spring was discovered here in 1716, and from a mere village the place gradually increased till 1788, when the benefit derived by George III. from its waters suddenly made it a resort of fashion. The four spas - Royal Old Well, Montpellier, Pittville, and Cambray - are all saline but the last, which is chalybeate; they are deemed efficacious for liver complaints and dyspepsia. With its squares, crescents, and terraces, its gardens and promenades, its clubs and pump-rooms, its August 'cricket week,' its healthy climate, the cheapness of living, and the happy absence of manufactures, the town offers many attractions both to visitors and residents, the former largely fox-hunters in winter, the latter retired Anglo-Indians. It is, besides, a great educational centre, the seat of the Proprietary College, for 700 boys, founded in 1840, and occupying a splendid Tudor pile of 1843; a grammar-school (1586; reconstituted 1883); a large ladies' college (1854); a Church of England training college for schoolmasters (1847); and private schools beyond number. Noticeable buildings are the 14th-century parish church; the Roman Catholic Church (1857), with a spire 205 feet high; the Corn Exchange (1863); and the handsome Free Library. Cheltenham has memories of Handel, Lord Tennyson, Frederick Robertson, Sydney Dobell, and Dean Close, under whom (1824-56) it became a stronghold of Evangelicalism. It was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1876, and has returned one member to parliament since 1832, the parliamentary boundary having been extended in 1885. Pop. (1804) 3076; (1841) 31,411; (1901) 52,858, of whom 49,439 were within the municipal boundary.