Christiania, the modern capital and chief commercial town of Norway (the ancient capital is Trondhjem, 'home of the throne,' where the kings are still crowned), 59° 56' N. lat., 10° 50' E. long., is built on the northern end of the Christiania Fiord. Pop. (1801) 8931; (1891) 151,239; (1900) 227,626. Christiania is named after Christian IV., who commenced building it in 1624 after the destruction of the ancient city of Oslo by fire. It is the seat of the national parliament, of the High Court of Judicature, and of the National University, with over 1500 students. Connected with this is the students' garden, a library of 350,000 volumes, a botanical garden, zoological and other museums, laboratories, and observatory. The Meteorological Institute was established in 1866. There are two national and historical palaces here, one in the city quite near the university, and one, Oscarshall, beautifully situated two' niles from the city on an eminence overlooking the fiord. There is a national picture-gallery, and a very interesting museum of northern antiquities. The Dom or Cathedral and Trinity Church are the principal ecclesiastical buildings. The old fortress Akershus Faestning still remains, and is used as a promenade, but has little military value. Among other public buildings are the Houses of Parliament, two theatres, the Freemasons' Hall, etc. The staple industry of Christiania is its shipping trade; its chief export is timber. A considerable industry is the brewing of Christiania o1, a sort of lager beer, with resinous flavour, largely consumed throughout Norway, and exported. The minor manufactures are cotton, canvas, engine-works, nail-works, paper-mills, and cariole-making. The harbour is closed by ice for three or four months most winters.