Christmas Island

Christmas Island, in the Pacific, is in 1° 57' N. lat., and 157° 27' W. long., with some guano deposits, and is a British possession. - Another Christmas Island, annexed to Britain in 1888, lies about 250 miles SW. of Java, is 6 miles long by 4 broad, and consists of rich phosphate deposits and coral on a volcanic substratum, part of it covered with luxuriant vegetation. - There is a third Christmas Island in the Bras d'Or, Cape Breton.


Chrudim, a town of Bohemia, 74 miles ESE. of Prague by rail. It manufactures sugar, beer, alcohol, and artificial manure. Pop. 12,8S6.


Chuhut, or Chupat, a Welsh colony in Patagonia, so named from a river whose mouth is 600 miles S. of the river Plate. The first settlers, 151, arrived in July 1865; and the population, after dwindling to 120, rose to 690 in 1876, and 3S00 in 1900. The principal town, Trerawson, or Rawsonville, about 5 miles from the sea, is named after Dr Rawson, an Argentine statesman.


Chudleigh, a Devon market-town, on the Teign, 10 miles SSW. of Exeter. Pop. of parish, 2000.


Chudleigh, Cape, on the north coast of Labrador, at the entrance of Hudson Strait.


Chumbi, the valley leading by the Chola Pass from Sikkim into Tibet.


Chumbul, an Indian river, rising in the Vin-dhyan Mountains, and flowing 650 miles NB. to the Jumna.


Chunar', a town of India, on the right bank of the Ganges, 26 miles SW. of Benares. Pop. 9548.


Chungking, the commercial capital of Western China, a treaty port in Sze-chwau (q.v.), on the Yang-tsze-kiang, 1500 miles from its mouth. Pop. 900,000.


Chupra, a town of Bengal, on the Gogra, near its confluence with the Ganges. Pop. 46,500.


Chuquisaca (Tchoo-kee-zah'ka),ov Sucre, capital of Bolivia, on a mountain-closed tableland, 8825 feet above the sea. Pop. 21,000.


Chuquito (Tchoo-kee'.to), a town of Peru, on the west shore of Lake Titicaca. Pop. 5000.


Chur (Fr. Coire; Rouniansch Cuera), capital of the Swiss canton of Grisons, 80 miles SB. of Zurich by rail, stands 1940 feet above the sea, on the road to the Splugen pass. Pop. 11,500.


Church, States of the, a territory or group of 'Papal States' in Central Italy, once under the sovereignty of the pope, since 1870 incorporated with the kingdom of Italy. Till 1S59 they covered 15,000 sq. m., and had a population of 3,000,000 - including, besides Rome, the Romagna, Umbria, the March of Ancona, and the towns of Bologna, Perugia, and Viterbo.

Churchill River

Churchill River, Canada, rises under 55° N. lat., and flows near 1000 miles generally NE. through a series of lakes to Hudson Bay, near Fort Churchill.


Churn, a headstream of the Thames, 16 miles long, rising 3 1/4 miles S. by E. of Cheltenham.


Chusan', the largest island of a small archipelago, a mile off the E. coast of China, opposite Ningpo. Area, over 230 sq. m.; pop. 200,000 to 250,000. Although mountainous in the centre, it is generally fertile. Ting-hai, the capital (pop. 40,000), has a land-locked harbour. It was held by the British in 1840-41, and again in 1860. The sacred island of Pu-tu, a mile E. of Chusan, is covered with Buddhist temples, pagodas, and monasteries, with over a thousand monks.