Citeaux (See-to'; anc. Cistercium), the mother abbey of the great Cistercian monastic order (founded here in 1098), stands 12 miles S. of Dijon, in the French dep. of Cote d'Or. The abbey buildings, nearly destroyed in 1798, have been converted into an industrial and agricultural reformatory for juvenile offenders.

Citta di Castello

Citta di Castello, a cathedral city of Italy, on the Tiber, 25 miles NNW. of Perugia. Pop. 5433.


Cittavec'chia. See Malta.

Ciudad Bolivar

Ciudad Bolivar. See Angostura.


Ciudadela (The-oo-da-day'la), a seaport town (formerly capital) of Minorca, on the west coast, with a cathedral. Pop. 8431.

Ciudad Real

Ciudad Real (The-oo-dhadh Eay-al; 'royal city'), a town of Spain, between the Guadiana and Jabalon, 105 miles S. of Madrid by rail. Pop. 14,500. Area of province of Ciudad Real, 7840 sq. m.; pop. 305,000.

Ciudad Rodrigo

Ciudad Rodrigo (The-oo-dhadh Rodh-ree'go; 'Roderic's Town'), a fortified cathedral city of Spain, 17 m. from Portuguese frontier, 56 SW. of Salamanca by rail, on a steep hill above the Agueda; taken by the English (1706) and French (1707), by Wellington (Jan. 1812). Pop. 6984.

Civita Castellana

Civita Castellana (Chee'vi-ta Kas-tel-lah'na), a town of Italy, 25 miles N. of Rome. It has a cathedral (1210), and a citadel, now a state-prison. Pop. 5251. In the neighbourhood are remains of the Etruscan Falerii.

Civita Vecchia

Civita Vecchia (Chee'vi-ta Vek'ki-a; anc. Portus Trajani), an Italian fortified port, 50 miles NW. of Rome by rail. Pop. 14,980.


Clackmannan, the county town of Clackmannanshire, on the Devon, 2 miles E. by S. of Alloa. An eminence is crowned by the ruined tower of the Bruces. Pop. 1505.


Clackmannanshire, the smallest county of Scotland, lies between the counties of Perth, Fife, and Stirling, and slopes from the green Ochil Hills to the Forth. Its greatest length is 10 miles; area, 38 sq. m. Pop. (1871) 23,747; (1901) 32,019. Clackmannan is the county town, but Alloa and Alva are more important places. Clackmannanshire, with Kinross-shire, returns one member to parliament. See Beveridge, Between the Forth and the Ochils (1888).


Clacton, an Essex watering-place, 15 miles SE. of Colchester. Pop. 7500.


Clairac, a town in the French dep. of Lot-et-Garonne, on the Lot, 18 miles NW. of Agen. Pop. 1550.


Clairvaux (Clair-vo'), a village of France, 10 miles SE. of Bar-sur-Aube. Its once famous Cistercian abbey, founded in 1115 by St Bernard, was suppressed at the Revolution, and the extensive buildings are now used as a prison.


Clanwilliam, a division of the Western Province, N. of Capetown, South Africa, embracing the rich valley of Olifant River West. Chief village, Clanwilliam, on Jan Dissels River.


Clap'ham, a south-western suburb of London, lying a mile S. of the Thames, and forms one of the London parliamentary boroughs, returning one member, but for municipal purposes it is divided between the metropolitan boroughs of Battersea and Wandsworth. Clapham Common is still an open common of 200 acres. - The 'Clapham Sect' was a name given by Sydney Smith to the Evangelical party, as represented especially by Venn, Romaine, Zachary Macaulay, and Wilberforce.