Cleveland, a wild mountainous district, with some picturesque fertile valleys, forming the east part of the North Riding of Yorkshire between Whitby and the Tees. In the south the hills rise 1300 to 1850 feet. An extraordinary change has been wrought in the aspect of the country by a discovery of ironstone in the Cleveland hills; since 1851, lonely hamlets have become populous towns. See works by J. C. Atkinson (1891) and J. Leyland (1892).


Cleveland, the largest city of Ohio, is on the south shore of Lake Erie, 350 miles by rail E. of Chicago. The city is built mainly upon a plain from 60 to 150 feet above the lake, and is divided into the east and west sides by the tortuous valley of the Cuyahoga River, which is crossed by two high-level bridges - one mainly of stone (1878), and one of iron (1888, 3931 feet long). There are other bridges at the lower level in the valley. The ' flats' along the river are occupied by vast lumber-yards, factories, mills, coal-yards, ore docks, ship-yards, etc. The river is the harbour, and an outer harbour is protected by an immense United States breakwater. The business centre of Cleveland extends east from the lower part of the river-valley for three-fourths of a mile along Superior Street. On the Public Square, 10 acres in area, are the custom-house and post-office, a court-house, the fine old 'stone' (first Presbyterian) Church, a theatre, an hotel, banks, and fountains. From the south-east corner of the square Euclid Avenue, according to Bayard Taylor the most beautiful street in the world, runs eastward beyond Wade Park, a beautiful tract of about 65 acres. Farther east is Lake View Cemetery, with the monument of President Garfield, 125 feet high. A great wealth of gardens and shade-trees is noticeable throughout the 'Forest City,' except in the poorest quarters; few houses are built in blocks, and tenements are virtually unknown. The water is supplied from Lake Erie. Cleveland has a large music-hall, several theatres, over 250 churches, the Western Reserve University, and colleges, medical schools, hospitals, asylums, and two large libraries; some 60 periodicals, daily, tri-weekly, weekly, and monthly, are published in the city. Cleveland's rapid growth is due mainly to the fact that nowhere else can the rich iron ores of Lake Superior, the coal of Northern Ohio, and the limestone of the Lake Erie islands, be brought together so cheaply; its position at the north terminus of the Ohio Canal being very advantageous, and seven railways terminate here. The chief industries of the city are the various manufactures of iron, including steel rails, forgings, wire, bridges, steel and iron ships, engines, boilers, nails, screws, sewing-machines, agricultural implements and machinery of all kinds, the refining of petroleum, wood-work, and other manufactures of endless variety. Cleveland is the greatest iron ore receiving point in America, one of the largest lumber markets in the country, and the mercantile centre of an extensive and productive region. The site was laid out by General Moses Cleveland in 1796; in 1836 it was incorporated. Pop. (1850) 17,034; (1880) 160,146; (1890) 261,353; (1900) 381,768.