Cor'sica, the fourth largest island of the Mediterranean, is 114 miles long by 52 miles broad, with 300 miles of coast-line. Area, 3378 sq. m.; pop. (1872) 258,507; (1901) 295,589. Corsica is separated from the twin island of Sardinia, to the south, by the Strait of Bonifacio. It is 54 miles SW. of Leghorn 'and 98 S. of Genoa. Though now a dep. of France, the island belongs geographically, historically, and linguistically to Italy. The interior is a labyrinth of mountains, the highest summits being about the middle: Cinto (8878 feet); Rotondo (8607); Pagli-Orba (8283). On the west side the mountains reach to the coast, but on the east, between mountains and sea, there extend alluvial plains, edged seawards with lagoons and swamps, highly fertile but malarious, so that in summer the occupants have to escape to the mountains. In the time of the Romans these plains were densely peopled, and recently eucalyptus plantations are beginning to overcome the malaria. Corsica is watered by numerous streams, none navigable, with cascades glittering in all directions. The climate generally is highly salubrious. The soil is very fertile, and over 43 per cent. of the entire area is arable land; yet flour, wheat, and hay are imported. Corsica presents a succession of climates and vegetation zones. About one-sixth of the whole is covered with forest, but this includes in many places only confused thickets. The moufflon or wild sheep is found; also wild boars, large foxes, and small deer, but no wolves or bears. The venomous ant is peculiar to Corsica, where are also the Malmignata spider and the taran-tula. The minerals include copper, silver, lead, sulphide of antimony, iron, and manganese. Among the valuable stones are granite, porphyry, jasper, alabaster, and marble; and the Orezza mineral waters have a high medicinal value. The chief industries are fishing and rearing of cattle. Wines, timber, charcoal, olive-oil, and dried fruits are the principal exports. In 1888 a railway was opened from Bastia to Corte, and other lines have since been constructed. Corsica is divided into the five arrondissements of Ajaccio, Bastia, Calvi, Corte, Sartene. The capital is Ajaccio, but the most important town is Bastia. The language is a corrupt Italian. In early times known as Cyrnos, Corsica in the 8th century fell to the Saracens, in the 11th to Pisa. Thence it passed to the Genoese. The Genoese, unable to subdue the Corsicans, who had risen under General Paoli, surrendered Corsica to the French, who conquered it in 1768, since which time it has willingly united itself with France. Napoleon was 'the Corsican.' See works by Boswell (1768), Borde (1887), Barry (1893), and Caird (1899).