Council Bluffs, a city of Iowa, capital of Pottawattamie county, 141 miles WSW. of Des Moines by rail, on a plain backed by the high bluffs from which it takes its name. The Missouri River, 3 miles to the west, is crossed by a grand railway bridge to Omaha, and five railways meet at the town, which manufactures paper, iron, carriages, and agricultural machines. Pop. (1870) 10,020; (1900) 25,802.
Coupar-Angus (Coop'er-Ang-gus), a Perthshire police-burgh, near the Isla's left bank, 13 miles NNE. of Perth. Within a Roman camp here is the fragment of a Cistercian abbey (1164). Linen is manufactured. Pop. 2100. See also Cupar.
Courland, or Kurland (Koor'land), one of the Baltic provinces of Russia. Mostly level, with many lakes and forests, it was formerly an independent duchy - properly, indeed, consisting of two duchies, Courland and Seingallen - and belonged, along with Livonia, to the Teutonic Knights. The difficulty of resisting Russia led to the acknowledgment in 1561 of Poland's sovereignty; but in 1795 Courland was finally united to Russia. Area, 10,535 sq. m.; population, 680,000, mostly Protestants. Mitan is the capital, but Libau the most flourishing town.
Courtallum (Kuttalam), an Indian town, 38 miles NW. of Tinnevelli, stands amongst the Ghats near the south end of the peninsula; and though only 450 feet above sea-level, serves as the sanatorium of the district. Pop. 1216.
Courtrai (Flem. Kortrijk), a walled town of Belgium, on the Lys, 54 miles SW. of Brussels by rail, and 6 from the French frontier. It has a fine eld bridge flanked with towers, a noble townhall (1526), belfry, and a beautiful Gothic church, founded in 1238 by Baldwin, Count of Flanders. Table damask, linen, and lace are the chief manufactures. Population, about 35,000. Here, in 1302, the citizens of Ghent and Bruges won over the French the 'Battle of the Spurs,' so named from the number of gilt spurs gathered from the dead.