Cracow (Pol. Krakov, Ger. Krakau), a city of Austrian Galicia, 259 miles NE. of Vienna. It stands 672 feet above sea-level, in a wide, hill-girt plain on the left bank of the Vistula, which here becomes navigable, and is spanned by a bridge (1850) leading to Podgorze. The old walls, converted into promenades, have been superseded by a line of detached forts. On the Wawel rock rises the old castle of the Polish kings, degraded now to a barrack. The neighbouring cathedral (1320-59) is a splendid pile, containing the graves of John Sobieski, Poniatowski, and Kosciusko, with Thorwaldsen's statue of Christ. The university (1364) was reorganised and reopened in 1817, and now is attended by more than 1100 students. Cracow has important fairs, and its trade and manufactures (chemicals, tobacco, beer, agricultural implements, etc.) have greatly revived. Three miles west of the city is a grassy mound, 150 feet high, reared in 1820-23 to the memory of Kosciusko. Pop. (1869)49,835; (1890) 74,593; (1905) about 95,000. Cracow was the Polish capital from 1320 till 1609. On the third partition of Poland (1795) it was assigned to Austria. In 1809-15 it was part of the duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815-45 a republic; but in 1846 it was re-annexed to Austria.