Crete (Ital. Candia, Gr. Krete), an autonomous Turkish island in the Mediterranean, still under Turkish suzerainty. It is 60 miles S. of Cape Malea in Greece, 110 SW. of Cape Krio in Asia Minor, 100 SSW. of Rhodes, and 300 W. of Cyprus. Its length is 156 miles; its breadth varies from 30 to as little as 7 miles; and its area is 3326 sq. m., or twice the size of Hampshire. The climate is excellent; the rainfall about 27 inches. Crete is for the most part mountainous, especially in the west, where stand the White Mountains. In the centre Mount Ida, now called Upsiloriti, attains 8055 feet. Everywhere the numerous small valleys are exceedingly fertile. The rivers are dried up in summer; but springs abound all over the island. The coast-line, deeply indented on the north, includes some good harbours, as Suda Bay on the north, and on the south Kaloi Limenes or the Fair Havens (Acts, xxvii. 8). Three neighbouring islands are Clauda or Gavdo, off the south-west coast, 15 sq. m. in area, with a lighthouse; Dia; and Grabusa. Wheat and fruit are the most important products. Oranges and lemons particularly flourish. The grapes are good, but the wine, though abundant, is very inferior. The forests have almost entirely disappeared; but on the hills the cypress flourishes, and in the plain country the olive is the most important tree. The principal exports are olive-oil, soap, carobs, wool, cheese, valonia, acorns, and fruits. Sheep are largely bred, and the wool is exported. Sponges are found upon the coast. Pop. 320,000, mostly of Greek descent, with 30,000 Moslems. The Cretans are a turbulent race, of proverbial mendacity, bold and independent. Crete had once, according to Homer, 'a hundred cities;' there are now but three towns: Candia, pop. 21,500; Retimo, 9500; and Canea or Khania, 14,000. Crete was subdued by the Romans (67 B.C.), by the Venetians (1205), and by the Turks (1669). A series of rebellions ended in 1897 in the intervention of the powers, the expulsion of the Turkish officials, and the constitution of Crete an autonomous state under Turkish suzerainty and Prince George of Greece as commissioner. In 1905 there was a rebellion aimed at union with Greece. Since 1900 there have been great excavations at Knossos, the ancient capital. See works by Spratts (1865), Edwardes (1887), A. J. Evans (1896), Biekford Smith (1897), and Freese (1897).