Croydon, a town in Surrey, 10 1/2 miles S. of London Bridge, yet practically a suburb of London. It lies on the edge of the chalk and plastic clay, near the Banstead Downs, at the source of the Wandle, hence its name Croindene 'chalkhill') in Domesday. The archbishops of Canterbury had a palace here from the Conquest till 1757. Its Perpendicular hall (1452) and chapel (1633-63) were purchased by the Duke of Newcastle in 1887 and presented to the Sisters of the Church Extension Association. Addington Park, 3 1/2 miles ESE., has since 1807 been the summer seat of the archbishops. Addiscombe House, at one time the residence of the first Earl of Liverpool, was converted in 1812 into the East India Military College, but was pulled down in 1863. The fine old Perpendicular parish church was destroyed by fire in January 1867, with the exception of the tower; but was rebuilt by Sir Gilbert Scott, and retains the monument of Archbishop Sheldon, with fragments of that of Archbishop Grindal. That of Archbishop Whitgift was restored in 1888 at a cost of 600. Whitgift's Hospital (1596) is a red brick quadrangular pile, whilst his grammar-school now occupies buildings of 1871, besides a large Whitgift middle school. Till the 18th century Croydon was famous for Its ' colliers' or charcoal-burners; now its chief specialty is the manufacture of church clocks and carillons. It was made a municipal borough in 1883, a parliamentary one in 1885, and a county borough in 1888. Pop. (1851) 10,260; (1861)20,325; (1871)55,652; (1881)78,953; (1891) 102,695; (1901) 133,895.