Cumberland, a Border county of England, washed on the W. by the Irish Sea and the Sol-way Firth. Eleventh in size of the English counties, it has a maximum length of 75 miles, a maximum breadth of 45, and an area of 1564 sq. m. The surface is mountainous in the southwest and east; the middle consists of hills, valleys, and elevated ridges, and the north and north-west districts, including the vale of Carlisle, are low, flat, or gently undulated. The mountains in the south-west are high, rugged, and sterile, with deep and narrow valleys, lakes, rivers, waterfalls, and woodlands. The chief mountains are Scaw Fell Pike (3210 feet), Scaw Fell (3162), Helvellyn (3118), Skiddaw (3058), Bow Fell (2960), and Cross Fell (2892). The largest lakes are Ullswater, Derwentwater, Bassenthwaite, Thirl-mere, Buttermere, Wastwater, and Ennerdale. Six of the chief waterfalls are 60 to 156 feet high. The chief rivers are the Eden, the Esk, and the Derwent. Cumberland abounds in mineral wealth - silver, copper, lead, iron, plumbago, gypsum, limestone, coal, slates, marbles, marl, etc. In the mountainous parts the climate is wet and variable, especially from July to October; on the coast it is mild. The annual rainfall ranges from 50 inches to 244 at Styhead Pass (1077 feet). There are many small dairies. The estates are generally small, and farmed by the owners, or held under the lords of the manors by customary tenure. Many of the small proprietors, or ' statesmen,' have had their lands in their families for centuries. The chief towns are Carlisle, Cocker-mouth, Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport, Wigton, Penrith, Keswick, Egremont. Since 1885 Cumberland returns one member for each of the four divisions, North or Eskdale, Mid or Penrith, Cockermouth, and West or Egremont. Pop. (1801) 117,230; (1841) 178,038; (1901) 266,921. Near Keswick and Kirkoswald are two fine stone circles; and many Roman relics have been found. For centuries part of Cumbria or Strathclyde, the present county was finally annexed to England in 1157. Prior to the union of the crowns,' it was the constant scene of war and devastation; and it suffered again in both the '15 and the '45. See [Borders, Lake District; and R. S. Ferguson's History of Cumberland (1890).
Cumberland, (1) capital of Alleghany county, Maryland, on the Potomac, 178 miles W. by N. of Baltimore by rail. It has manufactures of brick, cement, flour, and leather. Pop. 17,729. - (2) The north-easternmost town of Rhode Island, with coal and other minerals. Pop. 8990.