Dariel. See Caucasus.
Darien, a name formerly applied to the entire isthmus of Panama (q.v.), but now confined to the heavily-wooded hill-country lying between the Gulfs of Uraba (often called the Gulf of Darien) on the north and San Miguel on the south. William Paterson's Darien Scheme (1695-1703), to plant a Scottish colony on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, proved a total fiasco.
Darjeeling (Darjiling), a sanitary station in the Lower Himalayas, is situated on a narrow ridge, 7167 feet above the sea. It is a very popular sanatorium (1883), with a good water-supply. The fashionable month is October, after the rains, when the clear atmosphere shows a view of unsurpassed grandeur. Pop. 14,200.
Darling, a name applied to a river, a mountain-range, and two districts in Australia, is derived from Lieutenant-general Sir Ralph Darling (1775-1859), governor of New South Wales in 1825-31. (1) The river Darling, is formed by several head-streams, all rising in the great Dividing Range, and flows 11C0 miles south-westward to the Murray at Wentworth, on the border between New South Wales and South Australia. - (2) The Darling Range, in Western Australia, runs parallel to the west coast, at a distance of 10 to 25 miles; in Mount William it attains 3000 feet. - (3) The Darling district at the SW. corner of New South Wales, scantily watered, has an area of 50,000 sq. m. - (4) The Darling Downs (0080 sq. m.) form the richest pastoral district of Queensland, in the south of the colony. It was discovered by Allan Cunningham, the botanist, in 1827.
Darmstadt, a town of Germany, capital of the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, is situated on the small river Darm, 15 miles S. of Frankfort-on-Main. One of its two palaces, the old ducal palace, contains museums of painting, natural history, and archaeology, and a library of 500,000 volumes; in the other, Prince Charles's palace, is Holbein's famous 'Meyer Madonna.' The handsome post-office dates from 1881, the theatre from 1871. There are manufactures of chemicals, hats, machinery, tobacco, playing-cards, carpets, and beer. Pop. (1875) 44,0S8; (1900) 72,380.
Dartford, a thriving market-town of Kent, in the narrow valley of the Darent, 2 miles above its influx to the Thames, and 17 ESE. of London. Edward III. here founded an Augustinian nunnery (1355); St Edmund's chantry was a great place of pilgrimage; and at Dartford Wat Tyler commenced his rebellion (1381). The church, with a Norman tower, has interesting monuments - one to Sir John Spielman, Queen Elizabeth's jeweller, who in 1588 established here the first paper-mill in England. Paper is still manufactured, besides steam-engines, machinery, gunpowder, etc. Pop. (1851) 6224; (1891) 11,962; (1901) 18,644. See works by Dunkiu (1844) and Bayly (1876).