Delhi (Del'lee), the chief commercial and industrial centre of the Punjab, on the right bank of the Jumna, 113 miles NNW. of Agra, and 954 NW. of Calcutta. It is the terminus of the East Indian and Rajputana railways, the former crossing the Jumna by a fine iron bridge. Delhi is walled on three sides, has ten gates, and stands on high ground, the famous palace of Shah Jehan, now the Fort, looking out over the river and a wide stretch of wooded and cultivated country. To the north, about a mile distant, rises the historic 'ridge,' crowned with memorials of the Mutiny, and commanding a fine view of the city, the domes and minarets of which overtop the encircling groves. The palace buildings comprise the cathedral-like entrance hall, the audience hall, and several lesser pavilions, covering in all an area of 1600 feet by 3200, exclusive of gateways. The beautiful inlaid work and carving of these buildings are the admiration of the world, and the diwan-i-khas is worthy of its famous inscription: 'If there is a heaven on earth, it is this - it is this !' In the heart of the city stands the Jama Masjid ('great mosque'), one of the largest and finest structures of the kind in India, which also owes its origin to Shah Jehan. Among the notable monuments in the neighbourhood are the imperial tombs, including that of Hamayun, second of the Mogul dynasty; the old Kala Masjid, or black mosque; and the 13th century Kutab Minar, 10 miles to the south, which is 238 feet high, and tapers gracefully from a diameter of 47 feet at the base to 9 feet at the summit. Modern Delhi is noted for its broad main streets, the chief being the Chandni Chauk, or Silver Street, with its high clock-tower, and the institute and museum. Delhi has a large trade in wheat and other produce, and its bazaars are noted for gold and silver work, precious stones, shawls, and costly fabrics. Across the river is the ruined fort of Salimgarh. Pop. (1891) 192,570; (1901) 208,385.
Delhi was the capital of the Afghan or Pathan, and afterwards of the Mogul, empire. It was taken by Lord Lake in 1803, and has ever since been under British rule, except when it was held by the mutineers in 1857. The march of the mutineers from Meerut; the terrible 11th of May; the explosion of the powder-magazine by Willoughby and his heroic band; the assault, when the city was won (September 20) gate by gate and quarter by quarter - a success saddened by the death of the gallant Nicholson; the subsequent daring capture of the king of Delhi by Hodson; and the capture and shooting of his sons by the same officer, are memorable events. A memorial to Willoughby was erected by government in 18S8. In 1877 Delhi was the scene of the famous Durbar at which the Queen was proclaimed Empress of India.