Denver, the capital of Colorado, on the South Platte River, 922 miles W. of St Louis. It lies on a level plain, 5196 feet above the sea, beyond which rise the snow-capped peaks and deep blue shoulders of the Rocky Mountains. Denver was founded on a barren waste, dry and treeless, in 1858, and in 1870 the population was 4759; in 1880, 35,629; in 1900, 133,860. In thirty years the mining-camp had been transformed into the 'Queen City of the Plains,' with stately buildings of brick and yellow stone, and wide, shaded streets, provided with the electric light, and with horse, cable, and electric tram-cars; and it has become the meeting-point of a great network of railways. It has an abundant water-supply, many of the houses are heated by steam, supplied by a company; and through the resident portion streams of water course past the unpaved footways. The clear invigorating air and dry climate of Denver are famous; the mean annual temperature is 48° F., and the rainfall 17 inches. Among the chief buildings are the city-hall, a handsome court-house and post-office, high school (1887), Episcopal cathedral, the state capitol (commenced in 1886, and measuring 383 by 313 feet), and the university. Denver is the centre of a great agricultural and mining district, and has a large trade in cattle, hides, wool, and tallow. It is chiefly, however, to its position as the centre of a great mining region that Denver owes its marvellous progress; the discovery, in 1878, of the fabulous wealth of the Leadville Hills attracted capital and emigration from all parts of the continent. It has a United States assaying mint, and is an important ore market.