Derby (often Darby), a parl., munic., and county borough, the capital of Derbyshire, on the Der-went, 92 miles SE. of Liverpool and 129 NNW. of London. The Roman station of Derventio was at Little Chester, a northern suburb. Derby was a royal borough in Edward the Confessor's time, but was first placed under a mayor in 1638. It has returned two members since 1295. The tower of All Saints (1509-27) is a grand example of Perpendicular architecture, 175 feet high, exclusive of the pinnacles; the Roman Catholic church of St Mary (1835) is a good specimen of Pugin's work. Other buildings are the town-hall (1866); the free library and museum and art gallery, all gifted, like a recreation ground, by Mr M. T. Bass, from 1848 to 1883 M.P. for Derby; the grammar-school, a modern erection, but founded in 1162; and the infirmary, whose foundation-stone was laid by Queen Victoria in May 1891. The choicely-planted arboretum (16 acres), near the central railway station, was the gift (1840) of Mr Joseph Strutt. Derby is the headquarters of the Midland Railway Company; their vast establishments employ over 5000 men. Its manufactures are silk, cotton, elastic web, lace, hosiery, iron, lead, shot, spar, porcelain, marble, colours, and chemicals. Silk, one of its staple manufactures, was begun here first in England by John Lombe in 1719. Porcelain was manufactured here from 1756 till 1814; and the Derby Crown Porcelain Company has recently revived this beautiful industry with much success. Richardson, the novelist, 'Wright of Derby,' the painter, and Herbert Spencer, were natives; and Derby is identified with the 'stoniton' of George Eliot's Adam Bede. Pop. (1841) 32,741; (1901) 105,785.