Derbyshire, an inland county of England, lying between Yorkshire and Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire. Its length is 56 miles; its greatest breadth, 34 miles; and its area, 1029 sq. m., or 658,624 acres. Pop. (1801) 161,567; (1841) 272,202; (1901) 620,196. The surface is much diversified, the south being mostly flat, the east of an undulating character, but the north exceptionally hilly and rugged. The high land here, called the Peak (which is the name of a district and not of any particular point or mountain), is the southern termination of the Pennine chain, and forms the watershed between the Trent and the Mersey. The chief summits are Kinder Scout (2082 feet), Axe Edge (1810), and Blakelow Stones, Mam Tor, and Lord's Seat (all about 1700). North Derbyshire is justly celebrated for its picturesque scenery, which chiefly centres in the valleys of the Derwent and Wye. Matlock and Buxton, with warm mineral springs, are the two chief places of resort. The other towns are the four municipal boroughs of Derby, Chesterfield, Glossop, and Ilkeston, and Ashbourne, Bakewell, Belper, and Wirksworth. Since 1885 Derbyshire returns nine members to parliament; two for the borough of Derby, and seven for the county, who sit respectively for Chesterfield, High Peak, Mid Derbyshire, Ilkeston, North-eastern Derbyshire, Southern, and Western. Besides important coalmining, chiefly in the eastern division, Derbyshire is singularly wealthy in a diversity of minerals and metals - iron, lead, zinc, manganese, copper, gypsum, pipeclay and chert for potteries, marble, fluor-spar, and alabaster. The chief manufactures are cotton, silk, elastic web, worsted, metallic goods, porcelain and pottery, and spar ornaments. Though more a manufacturing and mining than an agricultural county, Derbyshire is not undistinguished for its pastoral and corn-growing properties, and, in the south, for its dairies. Of the total area, 78 per cent. is under crops of all kinds, bare fallow, and grass. There is much permanent pasture and large sheep-walks in the Peak district. Ecclesiastically Derbyshire is, since 1884, an archdeaconry of the diocese of Southwell, and is divided into 140 parishes. There are ruined abbeys at Dale and Beauchief, and peculiarly fine churches at Melbourne, Ashbourne, and Tideswell. The Saxon crypt of Repton, and the churchyard crosses of Eyam, Bakewell, Hope, etc, are the oldest ecclesiastical remains. Of feudal and domestic buildings may be named the castles of Castleton, Bolsover, and Duffield, the manor-house of South Winfield (ruin), Haddon Hall, and Hardwick Hall. Chatsworth (q.v.) is unrivalled. Arbelow, near Youlgreave, is the most important 'stone circle' in England next to Stonehenge. Derbyshire's chief historic association is the retreat in 1745 of Prince Charles Edward, Derby being the turning-point in his enterprise. Natives have been Flamsteed, Chantrey, and Brindley. See works by the Rev. J. C. Cox (5 vols. 1876-91), Pendleton (1886), and J. T. (1892).