Dortmund

Dortmund (Dort'moont), chief town of Westphalia, in the fertile Hellweg plain, near the Emscher, 74 miles NNE. of Cologne by rail. It is the mining headquarters of Westphalia, and an important railway centre; and it has iron and steel works, and manufactures of mining material, nail-making and other machines, safes, thread, bricks, timber, and flour, besides over 30 breweries, most of the beer being exported. Figuring from the 8th century as Therotmanni, or Dorpmunde, it became a free Hanse town, but was ceded to Prussia in 1815 at the congress of Vienna. An aged linden marks the site of the famous free court of the Vehmgericht; but since the walls were removed in 1863, the general aspect of the town has become quite modern. Pop. (1846) 8732; (1900) 142,418.

Douarnenez

Douarnenez (Doo-ar-ne-nay'), a French port of Finistere, on the Bay of Douarnenez, 8 miles NW. of Quimper by rail. It is important for the sardine-fishery, and has a pop. of 12,250.

Douay

Douay (Fr. Doo-ay', by English Catholics Dow'-ay; the Roman Duacum), a town in the French dep. of Nord, on the river Scarpe, 20 m. S. of Lille by rail. A great military town, it is strongly fortified, contains an important arsenal, a cannon-foundry, and a school of artillery. The principal buildings are the hotel-de-ville, the public library, containing 100,000 volumes and 3000 MSS., the museum, hospital, and artillery barracks. The manufactures include lace, cotton, oil, soap, and iron machinery. Pop. (1872) 21,703; (1901) 29,172. During the middle ages Douay was a constant bone of contention between the Flemish counts and the French rulers. It became the seat of a university (1562), of a great English Catholic college (1568), and of a Scotch Catholic college (1594), which came to an end at the French Revolution, Douay having passed with the rest of Flanders under the dominion of Spain, but been taken by Louis XIV. in 1667.

Doubs

Doubs (Doob), a dep. of France, on the E. frontier, adjoining Switzerland and Alsace. Area, 2010 sq. m.; population, 296,000. It is traversed by the river Doubs (total length, 270 miles), a tributary of the Saone. Doubs is divided into the four arrondissements of Besancon (the capital), Baume-les-Dames, Montbeliard, and Pontarlier.

Doune

Doune (Doon), a village of Perthshire, on the Teith, 9 miles NW. of Stirling by rail. Pop. 930. Doune Castle, built by Murdoch, Duke of Albany, in the early part of the 15th century, is now a magnificent ruin. It is described in Scott's Waverley, and was reduced to ruins by Hawley's dragoons in 1746. A mile to the west is Deanston (pop. 723), with its cotton-mills, long managed by the philanthropist, James Smith (1789-1850), the promoter of 'deep draining and thorough ploughing.'

Douro

Douro (Dooro; Span, form Duero), a large river of Spain and Portugal, rises in the Pico de Urbion (7369 feet), in Old Castile, 30 miles NW. of Soria. Thence it winds 490 miles SE., W., SW., and W. to the Atlantic below Oporto. It is navigable to Torre de Moncorvo, 90 miles.