Dublin, a maritime county in the province of Leinster. Area, 354 sq. m., six-sevenths being in cultivation, and one-fortieth in wood. The coast, much indented with creeks and bays, is 70 miles long, and off it lie several islands. Dublin Bay, one of the finest in the kingdom, is 6 miles broad, with a sweep of 16 miles, and has precipitous hills, 500 feet high, both at the north and south ends. The surface inland is mostly a rich level plain, with slight undulations, but rising in the south in a hill-range, its highest point Kippure, 2473 feet. North of this range the only prominent eminence is the Hill of Howth, 563 feet. The chief river is the Liffey, running through Dublin city into Dublin Bay. There are copper and lead mines near the Scalp; granite and limestone are much quarried. There are many mineral springs, most iinportant at Lucan. In the north covt st are grazing and meadow farms, silve Donard lin city, villas, dairy-farms, and nursery-gardens. Dublin is the best cultivated county in Ireland. Along the coast there are important fisheries. The towns are Dublin and Kingstown. Pop. (1841) 372,775; (1901) 448,206 - 78 per cent. are Catholics. Dublin sends eight members to parliament - two for the county, four for the city, and two for the university.

Dublin

Dublin (Irish Dubh-linn, 'black pool;' the Eblana of Ptolemy), the capital of Ireland, stands on the river Liffey, where it falls into Dublin Bay, in 53° 20' 38" N. lat., and 6° 17' 30" W. long. It is 64 miles W. of Holyhead, 138 W. of Liverpool, 223 SSW. of Glasgow, and 245 NW. of Bristol. Some of Dublin is built on land reclaimed from the sea, and the ground is generally flat. The river, running from west to east, divides the city into two almost equal portions. The fashionable quarter is to the south-east of the city; the principal shops are in the centre of the town; and there are many good private houses in the suburbs. The city is surrounded by a ' Circular Road' of nearly 9 miles in length. The most important street is Sackville Street, which is 700 yards long and 40 broad; at its north end stands the Rotunda, with Rutland Square; in its centre the beautiful Ionic portico of the General Post-office, and Nelson's Monument (134 feet high); while on the south it is terminated by O'Connell Bridge, and a wedgelike block of houses formed by the converging sides of Westmoreland and D'Olier Streets. A peculiar feature of Dublin is its squares, which are very numerous, spacious, and well kept. St Stephen's Green, the largest, laid out with great taste as a People's Park by the Guinness family, occupies an area of nearly 20 acres, and is about a mile in circuit. Somewhat smaller, but more fashionable, are Merrion Square (13 acres), and Fitzwilliam Square. The large park and quadrangles of Trinity College occupy more than 40 acres. Leinster House, once the town mansion of the Dukes of Leinster, now the home of the Royal Dublin Society, has been added to by the erection of a National Art Gallery and a Museum of Natural History. New buildings for a Science and Art Museum and a National Library were opened in 1890, having cost over 100,000. Among the other public edifices may be mentioned the Bank of Ireland (formerly the Houses of Parliament), Trinity College, the Customhouse, and the Four Courts, which, from the boldness of their design, and the massiveness of their proportions, have a very imposing effect. The Castle (the Lord Lieutenant's official residence) has no pretensions to architectural beauty. The Chapel is interesting, and contains some fine carved work of Grinling Gibbons. Dublin is remarkable in possessing two Protestant cathedrals. St Patrick's, founded in 1190, was restored in 1865 by the munificence of Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness; and Christ Church, dating from 1038, but not raised to cathedral rank till 1541, is a smaller but more beautiful edifice, also restored in 1878 by Mr Henry Roe. There are monuments of William III. in College Green (once a green, but now a paved street); of Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Goldsmith, Burke, Grattan, O'Connell, etc.

Within the limits of the Circular Road, the Liffey is crossed by twelve bridges (four of iron), and throughout the whole extent of the city the banks of the river are faced with granite walls and parapets. On each side of these ' quays,' 2 1/2 miles long, there is a roadway, with houses and shops. The quay proper extends eastward from the Butt Bridge. Near the Custom-house, a strikingly handsome classic building of native granite, are large docks in communication with the Royal and Grand Canals; the former connecting Dublin with the North Shannon and the west of Ireland, the latter with the southerly portion of the same river and the sea. A large basin, the 'spencer Dock,' was opened in 1873; and the harbour has been much improved by the completion of two large breakwaters, the North and South ' Walls.' There is a bar at the mouth of the harbour, but even there the least depth at low tide is about 11 feet. The chief manufacture is porter, of which nearly half a million hogsheads are annually exported, 'Guinness' being, of course, the most important. Next in order is whisky, and then poplin. The municipal affairs are under the control of a town council, which consists of a lord mayor, fifteen aldermen, and forty-live councillors. The city sends four members to parliament, the university two. Pop. (1688) 64,500; (1804) 167,899; (1841) 232,726; (1881) 249,602; (1901) 290,638.

The university of Dublin, with a single college (Trinity), was founded in 1591, and has a teaching-staff of more than 80, and over 1000 students. Among its former alumni have been Berkeley, Brady, Lord Cairns, Congreve, Curran, Farquhar, Goldsmith, Sir W. Hamilton, Lever, Magee, Moore, Swift, Tate, Toplady, and Ussher. There is also a Roman Catholic university (since 1854). The Royal University of Ireland, which superseded in 1880 the Queen's University, is not a teaching body, but resembles the university of London; it has its seat here. For the humbler classes much has been done by the National Board, by the Church Education Society, Roman Catholic brotherhoods and sisterhoods such as the Christian Brothers, and other agencies. There are two botanic gardens - one at Glasnevin, belonging to the Royal Dublin Society, and one at Ballsbridge, connected with the university. The environs of Dublin are especially beautiful. Rathmines, a southern suburb, has become a large township, and, together with Monkstown, Kingstown, and Killiney, is the favourite residence of the wealthier part of the mercantile community. Glasnevin, on the north, has memories of Swift, Addison, Steele, Tickell, Thomas Parnell, and Thomas Sheridan; its cemetery, opened in 1832, is classic ground, and contains the ashes of Curran, O'Connell (under a round tower 150 feet high), and C. S. Parnell. The Phoenix Park is a magnificent area of nearly 2000 acres, finely timbered. Dublin, as a whole, with its fine bay - often compared to the Bay of Naples - its splendid park, massive public buildings, wide streets, spacious squares, regular quays, and beautiful environs, is one of the handsomest capitals in Europe.

The ancient history of Dublin is mainly legend, but we know that in the 9th century the Danes took the place, and it was in their hands for the most part until the English Conquest. Henry II. held his court there in 1171; the English residents were almost extirpated in the rising of 'Black Monday' in 1207. In 1689 James II. held a parliament in Dublin, and the town was immediately afterwards occupied by William III.

See histories of the city, by J. Warburton (2 vols. 1818) and J. T. Gilbert (3 vols. 1854-59); of the university, by W. Taylor (1845), D. C. Heron (1847), Stubbs (1889;, and Mahaffy (1903); also The Book of Trinity College (1892).