Dumbarton, or Dunbarton, the county town of Dumbartonshire, lies mainly on the left bank of the Leven, a little above its influx to the Clyde, and 15 miles WNW. of Glasgow. Its chief public building is the Burgh Hall and Academy, a French-Gothic pile of 1866, restored since the fire of 1883; and there are a pier on the Clyde (1875), and a public park of 32 acres (1885), gifted to the town at a cost of £20,000. Dumbarton ranks merely as a sub-port; but its shipbuilding, with the subsidiary industries, has attained important dimensions since the opening of the great shipyards of Messrs M'Millan (1834) and Messrs Denny (1844). Between the town and the Clyde rises the Rock of Dumbarton (280 feet), a double-peaked, basaltic eminence, which is crowned by the castle, a building of no great strength now or architectural merit, but one of the four Scottish fortresses that must be maintained in terms of the Treaty of Union. Dumbarton was made a free royal burgh in 1222, and unites with the other four Kilmarnock burghs to return one member to parliament. Pop. (1851) 5445; (1901) 19,985. The capital of the Britons of Strathclyde, Dumbarton was termed by them Alcluith ('height on the Clyde'), by the Gaels Dunbreatan (' fort of the Britons'); and the history of its Rock extends over more than a thousand years, from its capture by Picts and Northumbrians (756), by Vikings (870), to Wallace's captivity here (1305), the child Queen Mary's residence (1548), and its daring surprise by Crawford of Jordanhill (1571).