Dumfriesshire, a Scottish Border county, bounded SE. by Cumberland, and S. for 21 miles by the Solway Firth. Its greatest length, from east to west, is 47 miles; its breadth varies between 13 and 32 miles; and its area is 1103 sq. m. From Clydesdale and Tweeddale it is shut off by a sinuous rim of high green rounded mauntains - Lowther Hill (2377 feet), Queensberry (2285), Hartfell (2651), White Coomb (2695), and Ettrick Pen (2269). Thence, though broken by Cairnkinna (1813 feet), Birrenswark (920), and some lesser eminences, the surface has a general southward slope to the dead level of Lochar Moss, a peat bog, 10 by 3 miles, now largely reclaimed. Three beautiful rivers, the Nith, Annan, and Esk, all run to the Solway; and all but the first belong wholly to Dumfriesshire. At Moffat are mineral springs. Besides seven lakes round Lochmaben, there is 'dark Loch Skene' (3/4 by 1/4 mile; 1680 feet above sea-level), which has its outlet by a waterfall, the Grey Mare's Tail. The Enterkin Pass has been rendered famous by Defoe and Dr John Brown. The minerals include coal (at Sanquhar and Canon-bie), limestone, antimony, and (at Wanlockhead) lead, silver, gold. The climate is mild. Only 32 per cent. of the entire area is arable, the uplands being pastoral or waste. Sheep, cattle, and pigs are largely reared; and there are valuable salmon-fisheries. The county returns one member to parliament. Towns and villages are Dumfries, Annan, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, Moffat, Lockerbie, Langholm, Ecclefechan, Thornhill, and Gretna Green. Among the numerous antiquities are the Roman station at Birrenswark, the Ruth-well Cross, Lincluden convent, and the castles of Lochmaben and Caerlaverock. Among its worthies are Bruce, Allan Cunningham, Thomas Carlyle, and by residence, Robert Burns. Pop. (1801) 54,597; (1881) 76,140; (1901) 72,571.