Dunedin (Dun-ee'din), capital of the provincial district of Otago, and the chief commercial city in New Zealand, at the head of Otago Harbour, on the east side of South Island, towards its southern extremity. It is 190 miles by sea from Lyttelton, and 150 from Invercargill (139 by rail). Since its foundation by members of the Free Church of Scotland in 1848, the city has rapidly increased in importance, chiefly after the discovery in 1861 of extensive gold-fields in the neighbourhood. It is the seat of an Anglican and a Roman Catholic bishop. There are many fine churches and buildings, one of the finest the new Bank of New Zealand (1882). Other edifices are the post-office, hospital, government buildings, mechanics' institute, lunatic asylum, etc.; and there are also the Botanical Gardens, the grounds of the Acclimatisation Society, a carriage-drive through the reserve called the Town Belt, which encircles the city, and a fine racecourse, near Ocean Beach, 2 miles distant. The high school and the university are flourishing institutions. Woollens are manufactured. Since the opening and deepening of the new Victoria Channel from Port Chalmers, large steamers can approach the wharf. The city was to have been named New Edinburgh, but by a happy suggestion of Dr William Chambers of Edinburgh, its name was changed to Dunedin, the Celtic designation of the Scottish capital. Pop. (1871) 14,857; (1901) 24,879, or, with suburbs, 52,390.