Ecclefechan

Ecclefechan (Ek'kel-feh'han), a Dumfriesshire village, 20 m. NW. of Carlisle. The house in which Carlyle was born (4th Dec. 1795) still stands, and in the churchyard of the U.P. church he was laid beside his father and mother. Pop. 786.

Eccles

Eccles, a municipal borough (incor. 1892), 4 miles W. of Manchester. Pop. (1901) 34,369.

Ecclesfield

Ecclesfield, a township in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 6 miles N. of Sheffield, with which it is now partly incorporated. The chief industries are cutlery and coal-mining.

Eccleshall

Eccleshall, a town of Staffordshire, 7 1/4 miles NW. of Stafford. Pop. of parish, 3778.

Eccleshill

Eccleshill, a town of Yorkshire, on the Aire, in 1899 incorporated with Bradford.

Echuca

Echuca (formerly Hopwood's Ferry), a town of Victoria, on a peninsula formed by the Murray and Campaspe rivers, 156 miles N. of Melbourne by rail. It has considerable trade in red-gum timber, wool, and wine, and important river traffic by steamer. A roadway and railway bridge, 1905 feet long (cost 124,000), connects it with Moama in New South Wales. Pop. 4234.

Ecija

Ecija (Ay-thee'ha), a Spanish city, in the province of Seville, 34 miles SW. of Cordova by rail. An old Roman and Moorish town, it is popularly known, on account of the great heat, as the 'Frying-pan of Andalusia.' Pop. 26,637.

Eckmuhl

Eckmuhl, a little village on the Laber, in Bavaria, 15 miles by rail S. of Ratisbon. Here, on 22d April 1809, Napoleon defeated the Archduke Charles of Austria.

Edam

Edam, a town of Holland, 13 miles NNE. of Amsterdam. Its specialty is cheese. Pop. 5824.

Edar

Edar, a Rajput state of Guzerat in the Mahi Kantha agency, tributary to Baroda, and subject to Bombay. Area, 4966 sq. m.; pop. 258,429. Edar, its capital, has 6223 inhabitants.

Eday

Eday, an Orkney island, 13 1/2 miles NNE. of Kirkwall. Area, 11 sq. m.; pop. 547.

Eden

Eden, a river of Westmorland and Cumberland, rising in the Pennine chain, and running 65 miles north-north-west, past Appleby and Carlisle, to a fine estuary at the head of the Solway Firth. There is another Eden in Sussex and Kent (12 miles long), a third in Fife (29 1/2), and a fourth in Berwickshire (23 1/2).

Edenderry

Edenderry, a town of King's county, 37 1/2 miles W. of Dublin. Pop. 1677.

Edenhall

Edenhall, the ancient seat of the Musgraves in Cumberland, 4 miles NE. of Penrith. Here is still preserved the famous 'Luck of Edenhall,' an old painted glass goblet (a chalice originally) said to have been snatched from the fairies; on its safety the welfare of the house depends.

Edenkoben

Edenkoben, a town of the Bavarian Palatinate, 6 miles N. of Landau. Pop. 600S.

Edessa

Edessa (Arabic Er-Ruha, called by travellers Orfa), a very ancient city, in the north of Mesopotamia, between Aleppo and Diarbekir, 78 miles SW. of the latter town. Made a Roman military colony (216 a.d.), it was an early seat of Christianity, but was conquered by the Moslems in 638. It was twice wrested from them (1031-86 and 1097-1144); in 1147 it was laid waste; and all who were not massacred were sold as slaves. Since 1515 it has formed a portion of the Turkish dominions. Edessa has numerous mosques and bazaars; manufactures of cotton goods, goldsmiths' wares, and morocco leather, and a large trade. Easterns, to whom it is the residence of Abraham, regard it as a sacred city. Pop. 20,000, of whom 2000 are Armenian Christians.