Ecclefechan (Ek'kel-feh'han), a Dumfriesshire village, 20 m. NW. of Carlisle. The house in which Carlyle was born (4th Dec. 1795) still stands, and in the churchyard of the U.P. church he was laid beside his father and mother. Pop. 786.
Echuca (formerly Hopwood's Ferry), a town of Victoria, on a peninsula formed by the Murray and Campaspe rivers, 156 miles N. of Melbourne by rail. It has considerable trade in red-gum timber, wool, and wine, and important river traffic by steamer. A roadway and railway bridge, 1905 feet long (cost £124,000), connects it with Moama in New South Wales. Pop. 4234.
Ecija (Ay-thee'ha), a Spanish city, in the province of Seville, 34 miles SW. of Cordova by rail. An old Roman and Moorish town, it is popularly known, on account of the great heat, as the 'Frying-pan of Andalusia.' Pop. 26,637.
Eden, a river of Westmorland and Cumberland, rising in the Pennine chain, and running 65 miles north-north-west, past Appleby and Carlisle, to a fine estuary at the head of the Solway Firth. There is another Eden in Sussex and Kent (12 miles long), a third in Fife (29 1/2), and a fourth in Berwickshire (23 1/2).
Edenderry, a town of King's county, 37 1/2 miles W. of Dublin. Pop. 1677.
Edenhall, the ancient seat of the Musgraves in Cumberland, 4 miles NE. of Penrith. Here is still preserved the famous 'Luck of Edenhall,' an old painted glass goblet (a chalice originally) said to have been snatched from the fairies; on its safety the welfare of the house depends.
Edessa (Arabic Er-Ruha, called by travellers Orfa), a very ancient city, in the north of Mesopotamia, between Aleppo and Diarbekir, 78 miles SW. of the latter town. Made a Roman military colony (216 a.d.), it was an early seat of Christianity, but was conquered by the Moslems in 638. It was twice wrested from them (1031-86 and 1097-1144); in 1147 it was laid waste; and all who were not massacred were sold as slaves. Since 1515 it has formed a portion of the Turkish dominions. Edessa has numerous mosques and bazaars; manufactures of cotton goods, goldsmiths' wares, and morocco leather, and a large trade. Easterns, to whom it is the residence of Abraham, regard it as a sacred city. Pop. 20,000, of whom 2000 are Armenian Christians.