Ekaterinburg, a fortified town of Russia, on the east slope of the Urals, and on the Isset, 312 miles SE. of Perm by rail. It has two cathedrals, and a mint for copper coinage, and is in the centre of the Ural mining districts. Its manufactures include iron, copper, machinery, soap, candles, and linen. Pop. 56,750.


Ekaterinodar, a Russian town, capital of the country of the Kuban Cossacks, on the Kuban River, 100 miles from its mouth. It has a cathedral and a military hospital. Pop. 66,308.


Ekaterinoslav, a government in South Russia, reaching in the south-east to the Sea of Azov. Area, 26,050 sq. m.; pop. 2,153,543. - The capital, Ekaterinoslav ('Catharine's fame'), on the Dnieper, 323 N. by E. of Sebastopol by rail, has a cathedral and large tobacco-factories. It was founded in 1784 by Prince Potemkin for the summer residence of the Empress Catharine II. It was the birthplace of Madame Blavatsky. Pop. 121,200.


Ekhmim, or Ikhmim (anc. Apu or Khemmis, Greek Panopolis), a town of Upper Egypt (pop. 15,000), on the east bank of the Nile, 15 miles S. of Girgeh.


Ekowe, the capital of Zululand (q.v.).


Ekron, the northernmost of the five great cities of the Philistines, on the borders of Judah and Dan.

El Araish

El Araish, or Laraish, a seaport of Morocco, 45 miles SSW. of Tangier; pop. 5000.

El Arish

El Arish, an Egyptian town (pop. 17,000), on the Mediterranean, at the mouth of the Wady-el-Arish, held to mark the boundary between Egypt and Syria, Africa and Asia.


Elba (Gr.Aethalia, Lat. Ilva), an Italian island in the Mediterranean, 6 miles off the coast of Tuscany. Area, 85 sq. m.; pop. 26,997. The coast is precipitous, the interior traversed by three ranges which reach 3380 feet. The chief industry is iron-mining; serpentine, chalk, granite, and marble also are quarried, while salt is produced from salt-pans. Much wine is made, and the tunny-fisheries are important. Porto Ferrajo, the capital, has a pop. of 5391. Elba was the place of Napoleon's exile, 1814-15.

El Bassan

El Bassan, a town of Turkey, in central Albania, 75 miles SSE. of Scutari. Pop. 15,000.


Elberfeld, one of the manufacturing capitals of Germany, on the Wupper, an affluent of the Rhine, 16 miles ENE. of Dusseldorf. It is famous for its dyeing, bleaching, and calico-printing establishments, also for its extensive manufactures of cotton, silks, tapes, ribbons, thread, lace, buttons, fancy woollen goods, etc. Its Turkey-red dyeworks are especially noted. There are also manufactures of machinery, iron and steel wares, pianofortes, paper, and carpets, besides large breweries. For miles around an immense number of weavers are labouring for the Elberfeld factories. Pop. (1875) 80,599; (1890) 125,899; (1900) 156,966.


Elbeuf (nearly El-buf), a town in the French dep. of Seine-Inferieure, on the left bank of the Seine, 14 miles S. by W. of Rouen by rail. The manufactures of cloth, flannel fabrics, billiard cloth, and light woollens of every colour and description, employ some 25,000 men here and in the neighbouring towns (Caudebec, &c), and the annual output of the district is valued at from 85,000,000 to 95,000,000 francs. Pop. (1872) 22,563; (1901) 18,164.