England (peopled by a mixed race descended from pre-Aryan 'Euskarians,' Celts, 'Anglo-Saxons,' Danes, Normans, and other elements) became the special home and headquarters of agricultural enterprise, mineral production, machine-making of all kinds and steam-power, of commerce, navigation, and shipping. But the great and rapid advance which made the commerce and manufactures of England the wonder of the world dates only from the later half of the 18th century, and is largely owing to the unparalleled development of machinery, the use of steam as a motive power, improved communication, and later, steam-navigation, railways, and electricity. It is very observable that the local distribution of the great industries of England has changed very greatly since the 17th century. At the Revolution period, most of the greater towns of England were in the south and east; but these have now been long outstripped by northern rivals, and what were then important manufacturing towns have in many cases sunk into mere villages. Now English manufacturing industries have most of their special seats in the north and midlands. The greater wealth of England as compared with Scotland and Ireland may be shown by a few miscellaneous figures as to textile industry, the collecting of customs, and the assessments for income-tax. There are in the United Kingdom about 7200 textile factories, of which 6185 are in England, 750 in Scotland, and 205 in Ireland. Of the total trade (exports and imports) 90.6 per cent. falls to England and Wales, 7.7 per cent. to Scotland, and 1.7 per cent. to Ireland. Of the coal raised in the United Kingdom in 1902 (227,084,871 tons) Scotland produced 34,115,309 tons. Though this indicates with approximate accuracy the movement of shipping, it, is true that a share of the vessels in English ports belongs to Scottish owners, and Scotland builds in some years almost as large a tonnage as England does. The total amount of the annual value of property and profits assessed to income-tax in 1901-2 in the United Kingdom was 860,993,453; the share of England being 749,127,300; of Scotland, 83,515,877; and of Ireland, 34,350,276.

On England, besides the histories, and the books cited at Great Britain, see for physical geography works by A. Geikie, Seeley, Hull, Ramsay, Green, etc, and works named in Anderson's Booh of British Topography (1881); also Escott, England (1879; 2d ed. 1886); Grant White, England Without and Within (1881); Thorold Rogers, Agricultural Prices in England (1866-93); T. H. Ward, The Reign of Queen Victoria,; W. Besant, Fifty Years Ago (1887); W. Cunningham, The Growth of English Industry and Commerce (1882; 2d ed. 1890).